QA vs. Testing

I constantly hear developers calling testing QA. “Send the build to QA”. Based on ANSI/IEEE standards:

  • Testing: The process of executing a system with the intent of finding defects including test planning prior to the execution of the test cases.
  • Quality Control: A set of activities designed to evaluate a developed working product.
  • Quality Assurance: A set of activities designed to ensure that the development and/or maintenance process is adequate to ensure a system will meet its objectives.

The key difference to remember is that QA is interested in the process whereas testing and quality control are interested in the product. Having a testing component in your development process demonstrates a higher degree of quality (as in QA).

Testing links

Testing / QA FAQs

Test Interview Questions

General interview tips

For those of you who also want the answers to these questions I offer you the following advice: if you spend the time to look up the answers yourself then it is much more likely that you will have a greater understanding of the answer and you will be more confident when talking with the interviewer or when taking the test.

I cannot stress enough to everyone to spend some time looking for answers through Google before posting your questions here. I enjoy answering the occasional difficult or obtuse question, but when I’m swamped with a hundred questions whose answers are easily found via Google then it’s hard to become motivated.

For example, someone asked: “please explain how to test a web application with winrunner or with any other testing tool”. If I go to Google and type in “testing web application”, I find Downloadable Reference Library Testing Web Applications which has more information than I know what do to with.

This page has links to a Winrunner 7.0 tutorial, users guide, and TSL (Test Script Language) reference. It should be very helpful for those of you that are interested in learning this tool. A WinRunner FAQ is located here.



  1. A Google search on “negative testing” may give you more insight than I will but negative testing is testing that is directed to showing that something will -not- work. It’s such a natural part of regular testing that I doubt that most people know that there is both a “positive” and “negative” testing.
    Given all of the web-based work that I’ve done, the first example that popped into my head involved HTML form testing: There is a zip code field (a field that takes exactly 5 numbers). Some negative tests would include:
    – Entering more or less than 5 numbers
    – Entering letters
    – Entering spaces
    – Leaving the field blank
    Positive tests would include:
    – Entering “12345”, “54321”
    (assuming that it did not validate that the numbers represented valid zipcodes).
    I hope that I have been helpful.

  2. respected sir
    what is V model in software testing?
    your reply to my earlier query was really helpful,thank u .

  3. The V-model is named as such due to its appearance. Development work proceeds down the left side of the “V” while tests occur up the right. At each phase of the development process (requirements, design, etc) the corresponding tests are created (acceptance, integration, etc (respectively)). It’s easier to explain with a picture (the paper brings up some interesting issues with the V-model):
    The V-model resembles the traditional waterfall development model and the V-model’s problems follow directly from it.
    There are other testing models available, for example X and W.
    For a good intro to testing at the management level, Rex Black’s “Managing the Testing Process” is not too shabby of a book. I don’t recommend going out into the world on just Mr. Black’s book though. It’s a bit too “high level” for some organizations. It’s like reading Feynman’s physics lectures and believing that you’re ready to tackle a physics problem.
    I hope I’ve been helpful.

  4. Are you asking what a manual testing process is?
    If so: “manual” means to “do by hand” — in other words, it’s not done automatically or in an automated fashion.
    To provide you an example:
    Let’s say that you have created a web page with a form on it and you have some JavaScript validation to ensure that in the a field you can only enter five numbers [0-9] — no more, no less.
    To manually test this form you might type in:
    1 — should fail (negative testing)
    123456 — should fail (negative testing)
    aaaaa — should fail (negative testing)
    12345 — should succeed (positive testing)
    and so on. Each time that you encounter a bug and being testing again, you would go back and try each test again.
    The automated way to do it would be to use some tool (such as HTTPUnit) where you could code all of the above cases and just run the test. It will either pass or fail.
    I hope this has been helpful.

  5. sir
    do u know site address which provide quetions and answers for online exams on software testing both manual and automated.i would like to get few model question papers as i am preparing for an exam.

  6. I’m assuming that that should be “Patrick Townsend”. I know that Mr. Townsend is quite big in whole realm of quality but I don’t know any specific quality process that is dubbed as his.

  7. Hi,
    Question asked for a candidate for manual tester.
    What is a day like at work ?
    What are you supposed to day to this ?

  8. What’s unfortunate about testing (whether you’re writing automated tests or you’re a manual tester) is that your job satisfaction is completely dependent on your environment.
    If the environment embraces testing then typically your job will be enjoyable. But a large percentage of the time, you have a development staff that disdains the testers and an upper management that places all of the blame on the testers. Couple this with management that continues to maintain a fixed end date with a moving “release to testing” date (i.e. development continues to miss release dates thereby reducing the time that you have to have meaningful tests) and you’re in for a horrendous job.
    Most of a bad environment can be shielded from you by a compitent QA manager. The problem here is that most “testing” managers have absolutely no idea about QA, full lifecycle testing and so on. In all of the time that I have worked in software, I have only met two compitent QA managers. So the odds are that you will be crapped on.
    Larger companies typically fare better in the QA departments than do smaller ones. Steer clear of companies that are bringing on QA late in a development cycle. Migrate towards companies that have a well established QA function.
    I don’t mean to pain a bleak picture but that’s the reality if you don’t watch out.
    Go to the interview with a whole bunch of questions. Ask what emphasis the company puts on quality. Ask them what your day-to-day activities look like. Do you get to work on the test cases or are they just handed to you and you work through them? (Neither is bad per se. You just have to know what you want to do.) I could go on but you’re going to have to do your own research so that you feel comfortable.
    I hope that I have been helpful.

  9. sir
    what are the 2 components of TEST MATURITY MODEL Version 1.0?
    remindind u once more to let me know the site adress which provide quetions and answers for online exams on software testing (manual and automated)
    Good day!
    thank u

  10. Head on over to and enter “test maturity model components”. If you’re feeling particularly saucy you can enter “test maturity model two components”. $50 says that you can find your answer in about 3 clicks.
    As for the software testing question, I already answered that.
    Take care and good luck.

  11. sir
    my model xam is over
    it was ok
    rob,what is gray box testing?
    another question which came was for acceptance testing which data u use ?
    options were
    a.test cases data or near live data
    c.both a and b
    d.none of the above
    which is the answer
    lemme knw
    i will knw the result of xam 2day eve
    tk cr

  12. sir
    i scored 37/50 for model exam.
    thank u for ur guidance . in a way i owe this mark to u ,for u helped me lot
    tk cr

  13. Grey box testing: the color grey is made by taking black and adding some white to it. So using this with the definitions of white and black box testing, you can infer what grey box testing is. More formally, grey box testing is testing from the outside (like black box) but with some knowledge of how the software operates (the white part).
    I always forget the difference between live and near-live so I’ll leave it up to Google to help you with your other question.
    I’m glad that you did well on your exam. Do remember though that these qualifications and exams are the -minimum- knowledge needed to perform a job. Just because you passed a test or have a certificate does not mean that you should stop studying or learning! Software and testing require constant learning to be proficient at them.
    Best of luck to you!

  14. Hello Sir,
    Can You please list out the common problems faced with the automating testing tools

  15. Sorry for the delay Nithi. Your question is a broad one. You might be better served to search Google for problems for a *specific* automated testing tool.
    But in general, the problems faced with automated testing tools combines the problems of using any software (e.g. bugs, limitations, and training of the tool itself) with that of testing (e.g. changing requirements = changing tests, the number of tests required to meet a quality goal, and actually writing the tests).
    The only one suggesting that I have that stands out from the rest is to make sure that what you’re going to test in an automated fashion is something that does not change frequently. Oh, and don’t forget about the problem of “who tests the tests”. *grin*

  16. Iranna, I’m assuming that you mean “bug”. The question of “what is a bug” is actually very difficult to answer with respect to software. It is entirely dependent on your organization. For some, “bug” and “defect” is synonymous while others have “bug” being a subset of “defect”.
    So then what’s “bug” and what’s “defect”. Well, again, that is entirely dependent on your organization. One of the first things you have to do is *define* them for your organization.
    Some examples are:
    “bug”: a programming error that causes software to work poorly, produce incorrect results, or fail to function. (Notice that this is specific to “programming” and not design. This is where “defect” and “bug” may differ.)
    “bug”: any problem in the system that causes it to not meet its desired quality. (This is a QA-style definition where “quality” here is basically a measure of how well a product matches its intended purpose. That’s not the best definition, but I hope it helps.)

  17. Hi,
    How to do tech interview for QA tester. any questions from you to find any fake in his resume??

  18. Tester interview questions. That’s always a fun one *grin* I usually start off with questions like “what’s a bug”, “what’s a defect”, “describe the lifecycle of a bug”, and “what is the purpose of testing”. Then, usually, it’s completely product based (e.g. TestDirector, Rational, etc).
    Unfortunately, I can’t be of more help since the position defines the type of questions to ask. Some companies differentiate between the people that design the test, write the test, and perform the test. Each requires different skills.

  19. Rob,
    Actually I am referring to “bud” not “bug”.
    Sometimes this term is used in software.
    I wanted to know what is it & when it is used?

  20. Reeta,
    Your question doesn’t seem to be valid..!.You cannot differentiate between “manual testing” & “black box” testing.
    Manual testing is one of the testing approach followed in Black box testing.
    You can do Black-box testing either manually or automatically.
    As Black-box testing can be defined as a “testing methodology where you don’t have an exposure to the code” whereas in
    Whitebox testing you need to have knowledge of the code you are testing (for ex: Unit Testing).

  21. Iranna, give me some context for “bud” — put it in a sentence or something. Unless it’s an acronym that I’m just not thinking of, the only “bud” that I use would be “nip it in the bud”. *grin*
    Thanks for answering Reeta. I was wondering how I was going to approach that one. Great explanation!

  22. bhavan, this really isn’t the place to be asking about regular expressions. We’re talking about testing and quality assurance.
    As for your question “the regular expression of k*”, the wording is a bit confusing. Do you want to know what the regular expression “k*” means, or do you want to know a regular expression that would match “k*”? For the former, “k” is a literal, so a string must match it and then “*” matches the preceding element (“k”) zero or more times. So the following would match:
    As for the latter, “k\*” should do, no?

  23. hi everybody;
    can any one tell me how functional testing is actually performed ? what things are taken care of in functional testing? with an example in reference to desktop based application like Library management system.

  24. Hi Dheeraj,
    Hope you know the definition of “Functional Testing” – means testing the functionality of your AUT (Application Under Test).
    In functional testing,you are going to excercise all the test cases which are intended for the particular component you wanted to test.
    Say for example, in Library Management System, you are testing “Issue Book” sub-module, you need to test the following features for fuctionality.
    1. check whether that particular book (which is ready for issue) is available in the library database.
    2. If the book is available, check whether the student has already taken the maximum no. of books.
    2a. If no, issue the book & check the total no. of books reduced by 1.
    2b. If not, It should say “You have already taken Nmax books ,Cannot issue books further.
    and so on…..
    After completing the execution of all the test cases ,make sure that the functionality of that particular component (Issue book,in this case)
    is working accordingly as per requirements stated in SRS.
    This is how you test the functionality of a particular component/sub module.
    Remember in regression testing , you are again doing functional testing making sure that the regressed (changed) code
    has not affected the functionality of other component.
    Hope now you are clear with functional testing concepts….eventhough my explanation is bit lengthy !!

  25. Harsha,
    It is very inconvinient to explain the entire bug life cycle…better you surf in google, you can find enough material.
    I would like to request everyone not put such extensive type of questions, u can find out answers in search sites.
    I would appreciate if u put discussion kind of questions which helps us to share our knowledge.

  26. How do i apply for the certfied software tester exam. can anyone please tell me the procedure involved in it.

  27. Sirisha Alaparthi, that is unfortunately a very open-ended question. I’m assuming that you’re testing an application with a user interface. Is it a web application?
    Do you already have the function tests “designed” — that is, do you have the test cases described (in text, not code)?
    If you already know the test cases, then it’s a simple matter to go through and record a test (I know that there are tutorials with the product that walk you though this exact scenario).
    What exactly are you to do and what information are you looking for us to help you with?

  28. I mean,To do functional testing,after writing test cases and scenrioes,how we perform it?just record test?

  29. How do you display information?How to extecute a line at a time? Paragraph at a time? How can you change data in the program? How do you set a condition? How do you execute the condition and reset it?

  30. Can anyone tell me what are the different types of Testing Metrics (like Traceability,Testability), and how to calculate them.
    Interviewers always ask this question.

  31. Hi all,
    How many test cases can we write for a text box that accepts numbers 1 to 10.
    please let me know.
    Thanks in advance

  32. Sheetal, without more constraints there are an infinite number of test cases that can be written. For example, if only negative testing was done: … “is it -2?” “is it -1?” “is it 0?” “is it 11?” “is it 12?” “is it 13?” ….

  33. Hello Sir
    Can you tell me how the Stored Procedures and Triggers are tested.This question asked me in an interview.I searched Google but unable to get the information.
    G.Srinivas Reddy

  34. Guyz,
    I have some useful documents such as Software Testing Faq’s,WinRunner faq’s…which may help for your interview purpose !!
    If anybody wants those docs, just give me ur mail-id’s, I will send the attachments.

  35. Hi Iranna,
    I am interested in those docs. Please mail me.If you click on my name link where you can find the mail Id

  36. Hi Rob,
    Hope you are doing great at both health & spirits.
    I have one query.
    In what circumstances we do perform load testing & stress testing?
    As per my knowledge I think,both load & stress testing are used to test the performance of a system provided load testing is used in client-server environment whereas stress testing for a stand-alone system. (plz Correct me If I am wrong).
    Also let me know additional differences between the two.

  37. Hello Iranna. I am doing very well thank you. I hope you doing the same.
    Load test: testing while the system is under normal or expected load. This is an attempt to determine how the system will perform under normal conditions.
    Stress test: testing while the system is under peak load or load-failure conditions. This is an attempt to determine how the system will perform at peak times or to determine how the system will break under great load.
    The software engineering testing FAQ has more insight:
    Both load and stress testing is typically done for a multi-user application. Given that a single-user application can only be “stressed” to the abilities of a single person, I don’t see any immediate benefit in using this technique. One counter example would be simply pressing keys (or multiple keys) as quickly as you can in a word processing application. This would be stress testing the application.
    I hope that I have been helpful!

  38. Can any one give me a nice example for Manual testing as where there is a need for Manual testing.with an Example so that I can explain it.

  39. hi,
    I would like to know, whats the difference between System test cases and Integration test cases?

  40. Hi,
    System & Integration test cases are almost same.
    By Integration Testing we mean when all Modules are combined together, the application on the whole should function as expected.
    Example: An Application has 3 modules
    combined test cases for all these Modules will be ur “Integration Test cases”.

  41. Testing Key Process areas?Can you explain lil bit more on it???.
    As far as my knowledge in V-Model as coding starts & modules gets rolled in QA, testing commence and passes through various QA-Passes.From AUT till UAT until we get UAT-sign -off and the application goes in Production-QA continue testing the Application!!

  42. Hi Humi,
    one of the Security Bug:
    SECURITY: Server type exposure – exposes the weblogic information

  43. please email the docs you were referring to such as Software Testing Faq’s,WinRunner faq’s, hich may be of help for the interview purposes.
    Thank you for all your effort. It’s been a helpful event for me to read all the questions and the responses.

  44. hai
    please send Software Testing Faq’s,WinRunner faq’s…which may help for my interview purpose .
    thank you

  45. hai to all,
    Please send me interview questions for testing.
    Thanks & regards,

  46. PLease keep on touch with me . this site is very help ful to those who are going to atend the interviews. And one more i request you to please give more details on WinRuner and LoadRunner INterview questions.
    THanking U
    With regards

  47. I want the sample of the Test Plan bcoz oftenly this question is asked “Prepare teh test plan of the given module”
    so what is required there
    answer plz

  48. I have following questions on WinRunner:-
    1) When and where the context sensitive & analog mode recordings are used ? It would be easier if you please explain them with examples.
    2) After loading GUI file sometimes it takes alot of memory so what can be done for it ?
    3) What exactly is physical description of the objects ? does it means key values or something else ?
    4) what are object’s classess ?
    I need your assistance regarding these questions ?
    Please help me by providing the answers to these questions.

  49. Sir,
    I was asked this question in one of my interviews.
    Following is the question:
    “When using batch mode,you run the test and leave for lunch or something(leave the test unattended)and after coming back you see that the test stopped at some point showing you some error,What would you do then?
    If you did nothing and run the test and leave for a longtime and you see the error after returning,you wasted all the time and you don’t want to do that.So,what would you do in a position like that to run your batch mode tests successfully?”
    That was the question.Waiting for your reply.

  50. HI,
    i want to know how will we be selecting tool for testing a process. and how should we use automated testing in integration testing?

  51. hi,
    can anyone plz explain the following:
    1.test stratgy
    2.Qa methodologies used for writing test cases
    3.QA metrics and their uses

  52. Hi,
    Irana,can u plz tell me what actually the terms SRS and BRS mean in detail (not the full forms) and where r they used.
    Thanks in advance,

  53. Madhu, usually with acronyms (such as BRS and SRS), you have to give a bit of context otherwise they could be anything.
    Since we’re talking about QA and testing, I can only assume that:
    SRS: System (or Software) Requirements Specification
    BRS: Business Requirements Specification
    There are a whole bunch of other xRS’s such as URS (user requirements specification).
    Since I don’t know which SRS you’re interested if (system or software) I can’t be of too much help. But if you know what the acronyms mean, then Google should be an excellent resource for you.

  54. Uma, the question you ask has already been asked. Check above for the entry on November 23, 2004 at 06:29 AM. If you have any questions based on that, please feel free to ask.

  55. Sir,
    Im appearing for the Change management/Release Engineer Interview. Can you please provide me with sample interview questions. In what way should i be prepared for the interview? Thanks in advance

  56. HiEverybody….
    As Rob explained above,
    SRS->Software Requirement specifications
    BRS->Business Requirement specifications
    In my understanding,An SRS should satisfy both stated (Functional & non-functional requirements of a softwar)and implied conditions (Business requirements).
    So u can say SRS should include BRS as well along with other requirements.
    The business life-cycle of a product includes everything that happens to that product over a period of several years, from initial purchase decision, through important but infrequent use cases, until product retirement.
    For more details, plz surrender to google search.

  57. Hi All,
    If Batch mode fails to execute the scripts, how to handle the errors. (in UNIX identifying the PID and checking the same in the log files or some other way ?), can any one please tell the steps to handle the situation.
    Thanx in advance.

  58. hi all,
    Happy and poosperous new year to all of you. I came first time on this cite and Its been enjoying for me while reading all the questions and answer. If any body having some interview questions related to QA then pls send me ( Special thanks to Rob.

  59. Those of you going for an interview for a testing position may want to look at this:
    (Notice also that there are other categories available from the left naviation.)
    I think that we should start aggregating people responses to these types of questions so that people can use them for a learning aid. (In other words, don’t just ask me for the answers. Do some research and post your answer here and let’s discuss it!)
    Take care all!

  60. sir,
    plz explain how to test a web application with winrunner or with any other testing tool.

  61. Hello I want to know what this batch (mean) and what it will do exactly.
    Iam Having a project Online Examination
    for this how to write a test case and test script.
    how it will be tested
    can u briefly explain to me,i want a help from u
    with the full details of what exactly the tester will do .and also i want to full details of testing
    I will be waiting for u reply

  62. For all of you with questions about WinRunner or any other Mercury tool, just go to:
    and download a trial version. There are tutorials with the trails that you can run through.
    For all of you with general testing questions, this:
    appears to be an *excellent* link with plenty of information.
    For everyone that keeps asking for Iranna’s list of questions, the link that I posted above on January 5, 2005 06:37 AM should give you a good enough head start. There is a wealth of information available on the internet — all you have to do is take the time to find it!
    Good luck!

  63. hi
    iam preparing for interviews, can anyone please send me interview question.(winrunner, QTP)
    it will be a big help for me
    thank u

  64. Respeced sir
    i am working a s/w Quality Conrol.
    i will give a interview in other please give me some tips,and question.

  65. Hai,
    The Below is the TSL script , i recorded using winrunner and when i playback it will playback and it wil insert the record. Now I have a Bug in the Zip Code filed. it should alow me to enter only 5 digits. but its alowing me to enter any no of digits here. How i can check this using the TSL script over here.
    can anyone please help me to fix this. Waiting for your anwsers. pls help me to fix this.
    # TaskManager Employee
    set_window (“TaskManager Login”, 2);
    edit_set (“txtUName”, “BABU”);
    edit_set (“txtZipCode”,”2323233″);
    button_press (“INSERT>>”);

  66. Richie, I will admit that I’m slightly confused by what you’re asking. Your TSL script enters “BABU” / “2323233” in to the username / password field on the login screen and that’s it. It doesn’t check any results (i.e. a checkpoint). Since I don’t know if you’re testing a web application or a GUI all I can do is tell you to look at either the WinRunner tutorial or TSL reference for checkpoints. You simply need to check for a particular result using, for example, web_obj_text_exists() (if its a web application).
    To be a bit more explicit let’s assume that this is a web application. Typically when you enter invalid data into a web application and hit “OK” (or in your case “INSERT>>”) you will be brough to another page (which may be the same page) that has some text that indicates an error such as “The zip code is invalid”. Check for this text using web_obj_text_exists() (with the appropriate arguments). If web_obj_text_exists() returns E_OK then there was an error (i.e. the error text was found). If it returns E_NOT_FOUND then either there was some other error or the entry was successful (you’d have to check for each case).
    I hope that this is helpful!

  67. A test scenario is typically just another name for a test case. Here are some links on test cases:
    A test plan is a “is a document that describes the objectives, scope, approach and focus of a software testing effort” [
    The reference information was obtained by going to Google and entering “what is a test plan” and “what is a test case”.
    Use google. It is your friend.

  68. Venkat, you’re going to need a -=LOT=- more context than that if you want an answer. Are we talking about algebraic functions, programming functions, application functions … ?!?

  69. sir,
    what is client/server testing and plz explain difference between stress testing and load testind with simple examples.

  70. ” How u applied winrunner for u r project”
    “How u differenciate atomated and manual test cases”

  71. Hi,
    What are the client/server application winrunner wil support??
    what are the web application Winrunner will support???
    for example client server – vb,pb
    web application – asp,java,jsp,dotnet.
    which are al winruner will support for to do a testing. can anyone pls list out this.

  72. I will have to say that I am quickly reaching wits end with all these questions with trivial-to-find answers. If this keeps up much longer I am going to close this entry to comments.
    Richie, your answer is trivially found by looking at the whitepapers for WinRunner.
    umadevi, most of your question has already been answered in comments above. So not only did you not bother to read all of the comments before posting, you most certainly didn’t check on Google.

  73. Hi,
    Please forwad me Faq’s on QTP and Winrunner
    That would be a great help for me as I have to attend Interviews which are to be held from next week..
    It would be helpful if I can get them asap, so that I can prepare for the coming interviews and can be sucessful in getting thru..
    This site been very helpful for the QA Testers

  74. Sir
    sorry for vague question
    How do we compare application functions
    Plz answer
    Also Is certification necessary for jobs?
    If so how t go about

  75. venkat, now we’re getting somewhere. We’ve gone from the size of the known universe to just our local galaxy. So new lets see if we can get down to maybe our solar system or even the earth.
    What type of application (web, thick client, etc)? *WHAT* are we comparing specifically? Are we comparing them in the context of testing?
    As for if certifications is necessary for a job, unfortunately the answer is “it depends”. Some companines require it. Other companies wavie it if you have significant experience. Given that there are quite a few testers out there and companies are looking to get the most for their money, it’s probably best to have some sort of certification. Now there’s another question you should ask: what kind of certification? Again, the answer is “it depends”. It depends on what type of company that you’re working for (or want to work for).
    reddy: I can’t answer your first question. Go to and look up WinRunner. Get the data sheets and white papers. There’s a link in the entry of this post (at the top of the page) that has references to a WinRunner tutorial. That may be of some help.
    As for your second question, that’s actually a tough one. There are many factors that go into deciding between manual and automated testing. It depends on what you’re testing (some thing cannot be easily automated) and it even depends on the company’s culture (some companies try to automate as much as possible whereas other perform only manual testing). Another factor is the rate at which the application changes. If the application changes too quickly then it doesn’t make sense to have automated tests since you’d have to create them for each release (which effectively boils down to manual testing). There are also divisions within the code that may dictate the type of testing. For example, most people will automate regression testing.
    I hope this has been helpful.

  76. Hi,
    I will be greatful to u if anybody of you can provide me the faqs related to TEST DIRECTOR,LOADRUNNER,QTP and WINRUNNER
    Wishing everbody a happy pongal.
    Thanks in advance

  77. Dear Sir,
    Thanx for responding. As far as File content Comparison, is we can do it in winrunner using built-in function. The questions I faced are like this (1)”How do we compare one file with future dated output files from a program, which has a change against baseline run, which used current date for input ? The client does’nt want to mask the dates on files”
    (2) What is the difference between Change Management and Configuration Management?
    I understood the configuration management as management related to change in baseline values of product during different version releases( I hope I am right); but didn’t follow Change management.
    I hope I am not troubling you by asking so many times so many questions. Please answer sir.

  78. Ah ha! Now we’re getting somewhere!
    I unfortunately know very little about WinRunner. I have used it to automate testing on a few UI projects but above and beyond that, I don’t know. If you need to compare parts of two files then it sounds like you’re going to need to write a custom tool to diff only the relevant parts (or diff the whole thing but ignore the dates). If WinRunner does in fact have this capability then that’s just great!
    As for change and configuration management: change management is the easy one. In a nutshell it is the management of change (I told you it was easy). In practice change management is a very difficult task as its goal is to identify and understand the impact of a change on a system. A large number of organizations advocate making a change on a whim without understanding the full impact of the change (e.g. what code needs to be changed, what tests need to be changed, what specifications need to be changed, etc, etc, etc). Change management is a way to work through the problem of change.
    Configuration management (CM) is difficult to get your hands around since it is used differently in different disciplines. What’s ever more confusing is that in some cases CM is a superset of change management (i.e. CM contains change management). Hopefully this:
    is a helpful link.
    I certainly don’t mind non-trivial questions. Ask away! Just keep in mind that I may not be able to answer every question!

  79. Hi,
    I am Using winrunner 7.01. and i would like to caputure the Java Application GUI objects. i coudnt it capture it.
    in the add-ins also i dont find any java.
    WInrunner 7.01 will support java application or not ??
    please advice me.

  80. prathibha, a “test case” is description of what has to be tested and how to go about doing it. A “test script” is code to perform checks described in the test case.
    For example:
    Test case (this is a trivial example): enter the zip code “A1234” into the “ZipCode” field. The results should be the error message “A zip code must be 5 digits.”
    Test script:

    button_press (“OK”);

    web_obj_text_exists(… “A zip code must be 5 digits”)

    (I apologize about the poor formatting)

  81. I am going for a tester interview .Can anybody suggest what is the best web site which provides me with good questions and answers

  82. Hi PKS,
    Answer to your question is,
    Smoke testing is non-exhaustive software testing, ascertaining that the most crucial functions of a program work, but not bothering with finer details. The term comes to software testing from a similarly basic type of hardware testing, in which the device passed the test if it didn’t catch fire the first time it was turned on.

  83. hi,
    my name is iam learning TESTING TOOLS. but iam asking which tool is the best tool for apply for is the job opertunity.
    how do prepare the CV tell me sir,
    best regards

  84. Dear Sir,
    How are you sir. I hope you remember me.
    Testing of web application components in the browser can be done by QTPro as well as LoadRunner. The testing for performance is done also using Loadrunner.( I hope I am correct in both accounts if not correct me)
    But my doubt is how do we check other content of web applications such as:
    (i) Interaction of html pages ( whether links broken)
    (ii) TCP/IP communications
    (iii) Internet connections
    (iv) Firewalls
    (v) Applications that run on server side
    like CGI scripts/ servlets etc.
    I hope that you will answer my question
    Thank you sir.

  85. Hi,
    I am new to this group. And I am glad to meet all u people here.
    I wanna say a few words to Amar,
    Hey Amar listen – Learning a testing tool and implementing totally depends on the area(softwaretesting) you are looking for, like for GUI based testing(windows, ERP, etc.,) you can learn Mercury Interactive. You also have JUnit, JMeter, Silk Testing Tools for Java Based testing, which can be used for Black and White Box Testing and so on. So, please select your area of interest.
    Regarding preparation of your CV – I can say be specific for your area of Interest (testing area) and the tools you know and also if any projects you have tested and the depth of your testing knowledge and other things

  86. Hi ravi,
    I can say make a web search using Google, you have many questions both for most of the tools.

  87. Hi Rob,
    Sir, hope to catch u in ur gud health n njoying it.
    Sir, I found ur contribution its really mind blowing. I am greatful to u 4 this. I have got a lot of information from this site as well as ur collection.
    please I request u to clear my doubts and also correct me if I am wrong whenever I am sharing my views.

  88. Hello Bobby. It is certainly great to have you here! Any help I can get answering all of these questions is very much welcome. And I certainly appreciate your thoughtful words.

    Venkatesh, sorry for taking so long to get back to you. My job sometimes gets in the way *grin*.
    You ask a very large and difficult question that I unfortunately cannot answer quickly. But I will take a quick swing at it.
    Item (i) can usually be tested with WinRunner. You just set up scripts to check for the existence of pages from other pages. I’m not sure what you’re getting at with (v) since all that server-side apps do (in 99% of the cases) is generate HTML. If it generates HTML then you can use something like WinRunner to test it.
    As for (ii), (iii) and (iv), those will take some time for you to research (try Google). I’m not a tester in my day to day job — I’m a development manager. I’ve forgotten more testing techniques than most people know *grin*. Back when I was doing testing there weren’t automated tools. You had to write scripts (unix style SH or Perl) to test the low-level components. I’m sure that there have to be products out there to help you but I unfortunately don’t know them and haven’t used them.
    Good Luck!

  89. Hi,
    Can Iranna or somone plz tell me:
    What testing activities we may want to automate in a project or an application?
    Thanks n Regards,

  90. Hi Iranna,
    These r the qts asked in my interview. So plz help me to answer these Qts:
    Does automation replace manual testing?
    What could go wrong with test automation ?
    How to find that tools work well with ur existing system?
    Thanks in advance,

  91. Ramana, I touched on automated testing in the comment above dated January 11, 2005 07:26 AM. Based on that, what questions do you have?
    Gunna, I have answered some of you questions in the comments above. Let’s do this, rather than having me reiterate what I’ve already reiterated, why don’t you give us your throughts on the answers and we’ll discuss them. Learning is not a passive process. You need to become engaged if you really want to learn this information!
    Take care!

  92. Hi Iranna,
    Actually, I have some idea about the qts,plz correct me if I am wrong:
    Actually, as per my knowledge, planning n designing is not possible in the automation so automation does not replace manual testing n automation is useful for execution process only.
    But sorry, I still didn’t understand what could go wrong with automation?So Iranna, plz explain me .
    actually we perform automation where we have less time. Am I right?
    We use automation testing tools in regression testing Right!Other than this where should we use automation testing tools n how do we know that where to automate n manual testing this is repeated qt in my interview so plz understand me n clarify my doubts.I will be grateful to u if u clarify my doubts.
    Thanks n Regards,

  93. What do you understand by the terms Response Time, Pages Per Second, Transactions Per Secpnd?
    How would you determine the performance of a web application by looking at the values of Response Time and Pages Per Second?
    Thanks a lot.

  94. SL, you ask a very interesting question. Believe it or not, there are *very* few (if any) standardized web performance metrics.
    For example ‘response time’ may mean one of the following things:
    o The time it takes from the initial request for a web page until the first byte is received.
    o The time it takes fromt he initial request for the -entire- page to be received. (There are also differences in the way “entire” is defined. It may mean just the HTML or it may mean the HTML plus any additional content such as images.)
    There are still other factors that are involved such as:
    o Is the server under load? If so, how is the load applied and what is it?
    o Is the test being done locally or across the internet (the internet will at latency, etc to the response time) and are all of the components of the network in place (firewalls, routers, load balancers, etc).
    (There are more factors but I’ll let you discover those on your own *grin*)
    ‘Pages per Second’ is similarily ill-defined. Does the ‘page’ include all of the additional content (such as images), just the HTML of some particular page of the site or is it just some arbitrary (fixed size) HTML? Is the server under load? Is the network component taken into account (again, is the test done locally or is it done across the internet)?
    Finally ‘transactions per second’ is the least defined of them all. What is a ‘tranaction’? Some sites define a transaction as a page which would make this identical to ‘pages per second’. Other sites define a transaction in terms of interaction done against some backend system (such as a database or legacy system). And there are still other definitions.
    So, unfortunately, there is little that I can do to help you understand these terms.
    As for “how would you determine the performance of a web application”, there is yet another problem. How do you define “performance”? Recently “web performance” has changed it meaning to be “what is the percentage of time that the web site is unavailable?”. Using that definition, there is little that you can say using only “response time” and “pages per second” (except that when the “pages per second” goes to zero and the “response time” becomes very large then the web site is down *grin*).
    I wish that I could be more help but unfortunately these terms aren’t well-defined. Each company that I have worked with has defined the terms differently and I expect the same is true in your case. What’s also unfortunate is that “web performance” is not something that’s easily searched for on, say, Google. The only words of advice that I can offer you is that you need to understand what the use of this performance data is. If you know what people are going to do with it then that can help you understand what data you need.

  95. Hi,
    Can Iranna or somone plz send me testing FAQs to my mail id(
    Thanks n Regards,

  96. My questions are:-
    1)What is the difference between Severity and Priority?
    2)Give an Example where Severity is high but Priority is low.

  97. hi varun,
    The effect of a bug on the software does not automatically correlate with the priority for fixing it. A severe bug that crashes the software only once in a blue moon for 1% of the users is lower priority than a mishandled error condition resulting in the need to re-enter a portion of the input for every user every time.
    Track priority and severity separately, then triage appropriately. It helps to have input from others on the team on priority. The importance of a bug is a project decision, different from the bug’s perception by the Customer. In some cases it makes sense to track Urgency, the customer’s point of view, separately.
    AND also u’ll find in google search u can get lot of answers.

  98. hi,
    iranna or can any one pls send me the tesing FAQ’s & documents to my mail id []

  99. anka, thanks for answering varun. I will admit that I was hoping to answer that one *grin*
    Prasanna, I have to ask, do you not know about search engines like Google ( If you do use them, are you not willing to in this case? How did you find this site? I don’t mean to be rude. I’m just trying to understand why people don’t do their own research.
    If you type “sanity testing” into “” the FIRST link returned is:
    which provides you with an *excellent* answer. In fact, there are dozens of follow up comments on that page that go through the difference in exacting detail.

  100. Hi everybody,
    I am preparing for an interview.
    Can any plz tell me what are Qa methodologies?
    Thanks in advance.

  101. Hi, I’m preparing for an interview and would like to ask if there’s any difference to the following 2 questions that an employer may ask:
    “how would you test a vending machine?”
    “what are the testcases for a vending machine?”

  102. Hi
    Im a test engineer currently working in California. i need FAQ stuff for testing or interview Questions on Testing. i need the information like QA Methodologies, principles and other Qs.
    thank you

  103. Hi this is pavan
    i am new to this group , naresh i have got the faqs for load runner probably i vll send this email today

  104. Hi All,
    i am new to this group. i am happy to join in this group. i will share my knowledge as much as i can. Happy to meet you all.
    This is one of the best site for testing people and you can find many answers regarding testing.
    All the best,

  105. Please stop asking for interview questions or the WinRunner FAQ. I have posted links at the top of the page to all of these. ONLY ONLY ONLY if those are not adequate, tell us WHY they are not adequate (i.e. what information are they missing that you need) and we will try to help you.

  106. Hi all,
    Can anybody tell me the diffrence between Performance testing, load testing and stress testing?
    thanks n regards
    mohit saxena
    Sr tester
    Path infotech Ltd

  107. Hi All,
    can anybody pls tell me diffrent type of testing we can perform on webbased applications and desktop applications?
    Thanks in advance

  108. Hi,
    Please tell me how we can invoke a telnet session using winrunner and we can execute the shell scripts or perl scripts using winrunner.

  109. Hi to everybody,
    Had a torrid week so didn’t get time to check out. Hope all of u r fine
    Ok to start with
    Performance Testing – I can say one thing, this is measured in terms of Quality – With respect to application’s performance under various circumstances. Like simultaneous operations, multi database access, Multi users n so on to gauge the perfromace of the application.
    Again I want to say one thing that you are only concentrating on the application’s performance not the server or client the application is going to be installed so be precise in answering these kind of questions in interview.
    Stress Testing – This according to me wil be stretching the application to the limit. In the sense that increase the stress on the application by increasing the bugs, do negitive testing n so on
    Load Testing – Increasing the Load on the application like increasing the simultaneous or multi operations or multiple users on the machine at a single instance. Try to increase the work load for the application.
    Remember Load & Stress Tests are a part of Performance Testing itself.
    I think I am clear with accordance to my knowledge. But surely Mr. Rob can put some light on it

  110. Thanks for your help with these questions Bobby. I too have been very busy lately so I apologize for my lack of responses.
    I’ve already given some info about stress and load testing on November 23, 2004 06:29 AM (above). Mine was more of a textbook answer so I certainly appreciate the more “real world” answer that you providede.
    I know that it’s hard to read through all of the 190+ comments that there have been so far on this thread. Does anyone have any ideas about how to best organize this information so that we can prevent so many duplicate questions? Should I delete the duplicate questions so that there’s not so much clutter? Any insights are appreciated!!

  111. Mohit, as Bobby said, most of the answer can be found on that link he posted (which, by the way, can be -easily- found with
    The only trick is the notion of “high level” test scenario. That link will tell you what a test scenario is but not what a “high level” one is. If you have any questions about that, post what you think it means and we’ll try to help!

  112. Marcos, you ask a good question. You’re really looking to know the difference between “test” and “test case”.
    “Test case” is defined here:
    If someone asked me “how do you test this?”, I would given them a “test plan”:
    A test case is just one part of a test plan.
    If you have any further questions on the difference, please post them here!

  113. Hi Rob,
    Felt happy to hear from me.
    Sir, I can suggest one thing you can put a Word on the top of the screen that please go through the queries and answers before dropping their questions.
    I can suggest one simple thing. Like suppose me searching for Performce Testing I will simply go for Edit -> Find on the Page and search for performance n if i don’t get appropiate query or answer of my choice then i can always post one.
    I think people can follow this option. Again its left for each person’s choice

  114. Hi,
    I like to ask as i know the manuall testing and start learning automation tool which automation tool i must learn first rational, winrunner or loadrunner & from where i can get the whitepapers for that tool on net. I am MCA.

  115. Hi to Everybody,
    Sure should say the week started early
    Hey mudita Its good that you know manual testing. But when you come to Automated Testing it differs as majority of these tools depend upon the application. To be precise you can say applications based on windows like,, vb, websites prefer Mercury Interactive ( winrunner, loadrunner.) and if its java based you have Silk, JMeter, JUnit,
    SO, I can suggest you one thing all these tools are important and can create careers for you, but you have to decide which platform and applications (windows based, java based .) you want to pursue and select that tool.

  116. Hi Radika,
    Listen stress testing on a website involves many things – Like performance of the website of the website:
    Links of the website
    Webpage of the website
    Time taken to upload a webpage and an image
    Time taken to upload a webpage through link.
    And there are many more. Everything depends upon the number of counters/hits you encounter on your website. I can suggest you one solution use Google and try to download a counter/hits software and try to use that software onto your website and see how many hits take place in a second.
    Alternative use LoadRunner and create Virtual users (200 to 400 to 800) depending upon your intensions and then using synchronization point try to make them hit at a time onto the application.
    I also have some docubts on this maybe Rob Sir may help you and me out

  117. You’ve got some good info there Bobby and I certainly appreciate your efforts here!
    You’ve said about all that I would say in regards to stress testing. My experience has shown that a basic web site (with static pages and the like) has a relatively fixed stress test result (it’s going to depend on the web server hardware). As you move into more complex websites with dynamic content and databases and the like then stress testing gets much more complicated. Pages with a lot of dynamic content increase the server load. Your tests have to mimic the “real world” otherwise your performance / load / stress testing may not be telling you something useful. It’s one thing to test a single large page with a lot of dynanic content and determine the maximum throughput (and this is very good information to have) and it’s another thing to know that only 1% of the traffic goes through that page.
    In other words, what I’m getting at is that testing shouldn’t happen in a vacuum but most of the time it does. The testers come up with a value X and they publish that result. Higher up managers start to worry about X and allocate resources to fixing X or making X better. But no one has any idea what having a value of X actually means. What if the majority of the traffice to get to the tested pages has to go through one particular bottleneck point?
    Well, I hope my ramblings are useful to someone *grin*.

  118. hi,
    thanku mr.winski and bobby.plz provide the links to download tools.actually i am new to testing tools. i am working as a tester(manual) but i want to shift into automation.plz help to know about tools and provide needful links.

  119. Hi Radika,
    Listen there are many softwares on the web that you can use for testing your website. But I will prefer using winrunner for website testing and Load runner for stress testing.
    You can find trial versions only on the net. So, it is better to purchase these testing softwares.
    Regarding Counter/Hits software you have many, which you you can search using Google and remember download only platform based softwares and use them
    In google you can write : Free Download Hits/Counter softwares for websites.
    If you are still facing problems you can mail me at

  120. What are the different stages of testing ? This was asked in an interview? Can help me out with this ???

  121. Pavan, you ask an interesting question. I have honestly not heard the phrase “stages of testing”. What I -have- heard is “testing phases”. I’m going to assuming that “stages of testing” and “testing phases” are the same thing.
    As for what the testing phases are, it depends on the methodology / model. If you look at my comment posted above on September 20, 2004 at 12:35PM you can read about the “V” model of testing. The V-model includes the following phases: unit testing, integration testing, system testing and acceptance testing. There are other models that define other phases.

  122. Hey,
    Hope to find all of u in gud moods.
    Pavan – Listen your question is quite gud n also old for a person already into software testing.
    Because in the daily life of a tester he will follow V Model. But when it comes to stages in Software Testing, then it involves many things depending upon the software he is testin.
    To be more precise i will tel u go through the given link

  123. hi,
    Every body,can anyone tell me the difference between wait method and synchronization point in Winrunner.

  124. Hi All
    I am new to this group. Can any body give me an example of Unit, Integration, System Test Case by taking a senario.
    Thanks in advance…

  125. Hi All,
    I am Swathi from VA. I am new this group and also Testing field. Recently I have learned some of the automated testing tools. Can someone please tell me, the best way to start with the testing career. Also if you can sujjest me some resources, that can help me to place myself in the market, that would be great.
    Thanks in Advance,

  126. Hi
    Load Runner is used to test websites or data base please clarify. Can i get the FAQs on Load Runner, if some one has please send it to my email.
    thank you.

  127. Hi to everybody,
    surely the weekend passed away in seconds.
    Madhavi – Hey madhavi thats a gud one u c Beta Testing – testing the software before a commercial release. This can be done by the user or selection of a group/team of testers outside the company for testing.
    User Acceptance Testing This is the process of user accepting the application on his terms and conditions. Usually the software is given as free trial to the user who is going to use the software later. Given to get a feedback on the functionality and performance of the software.
    Padmaja You have a gud doubt.
    Wait Method This method is used to stop the script for a few seconds/milliseconds from further operations. Like for instance your application is getting data from a database so when it is getting data it will surely take some time. That time you write the wait method to stop the script and wait until you get the data from the database. One more instance is suppose you are testing a website and you clicked a link to download an image or webpage that time also you can use this method.
    Synchronize Point You can say this as a point, where the key functionality of the application is taking place. You are using synchronization point as a area/point/screen in your application, where you want to carry out major testing activities then you can insert synchronization point
    Client/Server application This is normal client/server application using network topology can use lan, or man. This may or maynt involve net facilities depending upon the application. May work without web.
    Web Based Application Web Based application is working through net. All the operations are carried out through web. This is completely dependent on web/net.

  128. Hi again,
    Nagaraju Mr.Rob has already indicated many times regarding links related to testing and their information. You can find them at the top of the page. These are links.
    But still listen
    Unit Testing This can be testing of new inclusive/already exiting code, area in a screen, complete screen, collection of more than one screen. So, it can be any of the above.
    Intergation Testing This is integrating the whole module or set of screens relating to a single functionality and testing its functionality. Like say you are working on an accounting software then you have modules like: sales, purchase, inventory, etc., So, Integration testing involves testing each module as a separate and then combining and testing them as a single integrated unit.
    System Test Case I can say testers of different origins and backgrounds use different testing scenarios for system testing. System testing is nothing but involves testing the application for Performance Testing (Load Testing, Stress Testing), Adaptability Testing (Application performance on different platforms), and last but not the least compatibility testing (using different peripherals with the application, while testing).
    Swathi Listen one thing you cannot get known (recognitions) unless and until you dont appear in crowd. Again toping in the crowd is one more thing. Ok to start with you prepare a resume focusing on Testing and start applying or attending interviews. And also put in a resume format in Naukri and Monster. And if possible you will find sample testing resumes in these job sites itself. If nothing works feel free to mail me at I will be very happy to help you out.
    Khader Listen Load Runner is basically a tool to carry out load testing on your application. Irrespective of your application be Database driven or web-based. This tool is used where you want to test your application through load phrase by increasing the number of users/work load of the application. So, remember tools like Winrunner, Load Runner, Silk, Test Director work depending upon the functionality they are used for.

  129. hi all
    I am Raghu from Hyderabad. I am new this group and also in Testing field. Recently I have learned some of the automated testing tools. Can someone please tell me, the best way to start with the testing career. Also if you can suggest me some resources, that can help me to place myself in the market, that would be great.
    Thanks in Advance,

  130. Hi all,
    I am kishore,new to this group and also to the testing field.Friday (mar 4th) i am having an interview.Anybody pls send me the testing faq’s,winrunner and loadrunner faq’s to my email ASAP.Thanks in advance for helping me.

  131. Thanks Bobby. I am in the process of my resume preparation. Is there anyway I can give a testing foundation level exam, to boost up my confidence, please let me know.

  132. hi
    what r the properties of run test in test director.this was asked in my interview .

  133. Hi All,
    I had download trail verson of Loadrunner successfully. But I had faced problem during set up. Once I double click the download file below pop up message appears:
    “The contents of this file can not be unpacked. The executable you are attempting to run has been corrupted. please obtain another copy of the file, verify its integreity & try it again.”
    I am using Win XP-Home edition.
    Can anyone have technical support on it?

  134. Hi ther,
    Hope to find everyboy in jovial mood
    Swathi – listen There are very few certified examinations in testing & QA. Can say one of them is BrainBench.
    There is one more examination, which is recognized globally including india Please go through the following limks
    but to be frank they are very expensive maybe around Rs. 10000 – Rs. 15000.
    I can suggest u one thing from my side. Be through in testing and its domains n i don’t think u need a certification

  135. Hi,
    Bobby – Thanks for the information. Quick question? When you say testing domains, does it mean Financial, Banking, Health Care, Product Development etc., Well I do have some knowledge of the role of testing in the above domains, but not clear. If you can help in making clear, that would be great. Sorry, if I am troubling you.
    Raja – Do you have IIS installed on your machine? Usually it wont come with Windows XP home edition. I suggest you to use either Windows XP Professional or Windows 2000 Server. I understand changing O/S is tough….but that’s the only solution I can find. May be someone in the group has a better and easy one.

  136. Hi,
    Swathi True these are called testing domains. But remember that testing doesnt differ from domain to domain it differes from platform and applications used to develop them For instance manual testing maybe common for all the domains you have specified, but when it comes for automated it may be different.

  137. Hi there,
    This is my first mail to the Group. After seeing all the Answers to the Questions posted, i would like to have a suggestion.
    I am working as a Test Engineer (Manual) in Mobile domain for the past 3 months, like WAP,GPRS and also Websites checking, i would like to know what will be my future prospects in this domain.
    And one more question, what are the automated tools that are used for testing Mobile applications.

  138. Hi all,
    Mohit – When you say Desktop applications, I assume it to be Client/Server based. Well we can perform Unit, Functional, Integration,Regression, Performance, Load, Stress etc., again it all depends on the type of application and platform you are testing on.
    Someone correct me, if I am wrong.

  139. please can u give the answer for the regular expression of yahoo user-id? It was asked in my interview.
    also what r the BVA and ECP for yahoo user-id, this was also asked in my last interview
    advanced thanks

  140. Hi Iranna,
    I new to this group. u r doing greate job.
    Can u please send me the testing faqs, winrunner faqs.
    I am learning qtp, if possible can u send faqs on qtp to attend the interviews.
    Thanks & Regards in advance

  141. Hii there,
    I know that there are lot of customized and user-defined funtions used while scripting Winrunner. what are the widely used functions and their uses???
    i appreciate if somebody can give them with correct syntax.
    Please do not ask me to search online. I have users guide and there are lot of functions listed but i want to know only few which are mostly used.

  142. please email the docs you were referring to such as Software Testing Faq’s,WinRunner faq’s, hich may be of help for the interview purposes.
    Thank you for all your effort. It’s been a helpful event for me to read all the questions and the responses.

  143. Hi ALL,
    Can anybody send me some doc on rational robot and test manager.
    Do Rational tool are better than mercury or in which condition we should go for rational tools and when for mercury.
    Swathi — thanks a lot for your answer.

  144. Hi Team,
    Congrats! who ever build this ideal space to share our knowledge in specific 2 ‘Quality’.
    wanna to share my Quality exp in this zone.
    Having vast exp in both Product & Project based org in BFSI, Manfacuturing & Logistics verticals.
    Any help needed just ping me…will try to Attempt to give solution
    Jaya C

  145. Hi,
    Hey thats a gud week till now.
    I welcome u Jaya to this site and hope that your knowledge and experience will surely bring some good solutions to problems/queries faced/asked.
    Mohit – You see its like this whenever the project is started its estimate is drawn and depending upon the estimates other details like -Cost, resources, and other details are decided and managed.
    Coming to how manytimes its estimated it can be done when the project is 25% done, 50% done, 75% done n so on so as to reduce the expenses and get profits against the project. Sometimes when the company thinks the project is going weird/ more expensive an estimate is done. So, you can say it depends completely on the project management.
    I hope this justifies your answer and any suggestions from others are welcome.

  146. hai jaya,
    plz tell me how to perform functional testing on a web based application using winrunner.(with an example).I tried for this on web but not satisfied.can u plz explain this.

  147. Hi,
    Can Anyone tell me the difference between defect tracking efficiency and defect removal efficiency?

  148. Hi,
    Good Morning,
    What r the metics and matrix do u follow while testing or after testing an application.

  149. Hi,
    Sorry,my question is not clear.
    What r the metrics and matrix do u follow before or while testing an application.

  150. hi
    i want to do certification in testing…which is valid through out the world. please tell me the details. Which certification has great value?

  151. Padmaja, your question about testing stored procedures is an interesting one. You -can- run SQL and verify the output of a query via WinRunner (see chapter 17 of the WinRunner User’s Guide).
    But now here’s the hitch: WinRunner only seems to be able to validated the output of row-based queries. In other words, I don’t see a way for you to test something more exotic such as a returned cursor. Of course you can write SQL around a returned cursor to iterate over the rows and return a result but I don’t know how good your database skills are.
    I hope this was helpful.

  152. It’s great to see all of the new people here but asking questions and offering answers.
    I don’t always have the time to answer every question so I certainly appreciate all of the help.
    I am currently working on setting up a phpBB forum for this group. Once I have it in place I’ll have to find a way to get some of the data in so that we don’t lose all of these great questions. I’ll let everyone know when I have it setup and running.
    Take care and keep testing!

  153. Hi,
    Good Morning Everybody,I have a small doubt.
    Tester found a bug and sent it to Developer,but developer says it’s not a error or bug,then what is Tester going to do.Can you answer this question.Thank You.

  154. Hi Everybody,
    Hey u know its a chaotic week till now. Me eagerly waiting for the week end.
    Rob – You know you are a real genious and the work that you are doing is fabulous. You have my full Support and Help. Keep Up the Gud show.
    Rajnikanth – Both the bug tracking and removal are interrelated, but working apart units. Listen whenever a bug is detected depending upon the severity and priority of the bug its detected and removed. So, the efficiency of bug tracking and bug removal depends on many things – code, resurces, estimates, and other key factors while testing the software.
    Padmaja – Please refer to this link to get details for bug tracking
    There are many metrcies involved during the complete software testing to name a few : defect density, KlOc, Test matrix, Source Matrix. I can say use search engines to get details.

  155. hi all,
    i found this site to be intresting,
    i have a question,
    whts the maximum wait time for a synchronisation point.

  156. Hi,
    Hope every body will b fine,I m a brand new user of this site and I m very happy , that u people have made an xcellent source for the preparation of the interviews.
    I have a question, if any body helps me then i will b very thankful to him.I want to know that there are how many types of the test cases?
    and i need the answer of the same question asked by the padmaja on 9th march,
    thanx if u consider me
    Muhammad Tasneem Arif
    uet lahore

  157. Hi,
    Tasneem – Welcome to the Group.
    Your question, I can say genuine one because we have so many tests to carry out in a life cycle of a product/project that we usually wonder what kinda test cases we can create.
    Actually Test Case is nothing but a scenario like a scene means that for a single screen there can be more infinite number of test cases. But these test cases differ from one test type to another. Like for a Web Based software the test cases are different, For Manual different, For Automated different.
    Lastly, I want to say that you remember one thing that test cases are dependent on the way how you test the software (scenarios u create during testing).

  158. hi,
    Thanx sir, and i hope u may remain kind ,for any of mine next queries, thanx alot
    take care
    Muhammad Tasneem Arif

  159. Hi all,
    Sir, you are doing a wonderful job. We all are very greatful to you.
    Sweety – Parameterizing comes into picture when we are running Data Driven Tests in WinRunner. In Data driven tests, we test the application, by checking how it performs the same operations with multiple sets of data. In order for WinRunner to use the data to drive the test, we must link the data to the test script which it drives. This is called parameterizing the test.
    Hope I have cleared your doubt.

  160. Hi,
    Everybody,can anyone tell me when exactly testing starts,after gathering requirements,after designing,or after coding?
    Thank You.

  161. Hello every body,
    I found this site to be intresting,
    And I want to answer Shanti Question on March 9th.
    The default maximum wait time for a synchronization point is 10 sec.
    I think I cleared the doubt, if not please correct me… Thanx in advance

  162. Hi all,
    can any body know
    What is the formula to calculate the total no.of testcases of web application?
    I have been asked by the interviewer.

  163. Hi Everybody,
    I am answering to the question asked by Padmaja on March 10th.
    The Exact testing starts from the Studying of the BRS(Business Requirements Specificaiton).
    I think I cleared the doubt, if not please correct me… Thanx in advance.

  164. Padmaja, like a lot of testing questions, the answer to “when does testing begin” is “it depends”. It depends on the model that you’re using (the V-model mentioned above for example) and it depends on the company that you’re working with. Some companies see testing as a reactive process — it only gets done when something’s broken. Some companies are proactive and start testing the moment that they have requirements.
    Srinivas, your question of “how to calculate the total no. of testcases of web application” is quite odd. As Bobby said on March 10, there can be an infinite number of test cases. We will need a bit more information from you to help you come up with a good answer.

  165. hi all,
    I am new member to this site .I am glad i find this site,it’s been very useful for me.
    actually i have a question,what is the value of testcase(i faced this question in interview).
    thanks in advance

  166. Hi,
    Everybody,Good Morning,Can anyone tell me Where will you write Test Cases in manual testing and in automated tesing.
    Thank You.

  167. Hi Padmaja
    the testing should start with the requirement phase itself and one should not separate the STLC and SDLC.

  168. Hi All,
    Padamja- IF tester find a bug or error from his point of view he will raise it to developers and if developer or supervisor dont accept that it is a bug or error then tester will keep it as record.
    pls correct me if i am wrong.
    If anybody having some material on Rational Robot or on any rational tool pls share with me.

  169. Hi,
    Had a gud weekend
    ok to start with
    Jaya – Thats a gud one – Value of TestCase. You see we have many testcases that we create/workout/analyse in a test run of a application/module. The collection of the testcases is so huge that we are unsure which onces are important/neede and which to be excluded, so we assign some values to each. so, as to ensure that important test cases have not been excluded?
    A good test case is one that has a high probability of finding undiscovered errors. One of the selection criteria is by means of determining the value of a test case. By assigning a value to each of the test cases of a test suite, the relative importance of each of the test cases can be ranked and an optimal test suite can then be designed. The value of a test case should be measured in economic terms, which could be based on the probability that a particular case will occur and the consequence if it fails.
    Sonia – Hey you have asked a question that cannot be answered becuase there are many things involved in manual testing. But to make you at ease I will give you a few of the general questions asked:
    1. What/WHich is the domain you are/were testing – ERP, Web-Based,SAP….
    2. What/How did you test the domain – Manual/Automated/Both.
    3. What model you used for testing – VModel, Waterfall Model…..
    4. Procedure/processes involved in Testing – Test Plan
    5. Types of Tests you performed – Usually Unit ( blackbox, Whitebox, Positive and Negitive Testing).
    6. How did you perform Regression Testing.
    7. How did you report Bugs
    So, be prepared to face any kinda question – But be careful to anticipate and acknowledge for each test can be different for automated and manual.
    Padmaja – Listen usually automated testcases are recorded by the tool you use for automat testing. Like WInrunner, Silk, Junit, JMeter etc,., develop their own scripts. But for manual testing some use – Excel, Notepad and a few tools – Bugzilla, Magzilla and other tools exist. Some organizations have their own developed softwares.

  170. Hi Everbody,
    Can Bobby or anyone plz help me to answer these Qts—
    What could go wrong with test Automation?
    What testing activities u may want to automate in a project? n Why?
    How do we know that when to do manual testing n automated testing in a project?
    Thanks in advance

  171. hi
    iam having quick question.
    Is is necessity to know c++ concepts to create winrunner test scripts.

  172. Hi Madhavi,
    Planning the test automation plays an important role in any software testing. Usually the tests for automation are determined in the Design Phase of SDLC. The main purpose of test automation is to perform Regression testing. Test automation has many enhancing features – it is fast, reliable, repeatable, programmable, consistent, portable and has extensive reporting features. If the answer is yes for any of the following questions, then the tests need to be automated:
    – Does your test need to be ran for every build of an application?
    – Is it necessary to repeat the sequence of actions for many times?
    – Does your tests use multiple data values for the same actions?
    – Are you expecting the detailed test results, which studies the applications data structure as well?
    – Do you need to run the same tests on multiple hardware configurations?
    Well there are some limitations in automated testing as well. By considering the complexity and cost factors, not all scenarios can be automated. Automated tools have several constraints regarding the environment/architecture in which they run, which are somtimes very hard to maintain. Also testing the same actions over and over in an application, using same automated tests, would never log the defects which may exist in the AUT.
    Hope I have cleared all your queries. Someone please correct me if I am wrong.

  173. Balaji,
    WinRunner creates its test scripts in a ‘C’ like language, called as Test Script Language (TSL). Having a knowledge of C & C++ would be a plus point, but not compulsory for creating WinRunner test scripts.

  174. To add to Swathi’s comment to Balaji: the WinRunner users’s guide, tutorial, and TSL manual are available from a link at the top of this page. Take a look at them and get a feel for what’s going on.

  175. hi,
    can you tell me what is the difference between a “software fault” and a “defect”? An example also, if possible

  176. Hi All,
    Sonia- When we test the software application and find the bugs, we send it to the developers and after fixing the bug they send it to us to retest the fixed bugs that is called the regression testing.
    If i am wrong or want to this improve pls let me know.
    Mohit Saxena

  177. Hi All,
    Sonia-Regression testing is nothing but Retesting of an application after the bugs are fixed.
    It is performed to ensure that the old bugs do not reappear.
    I think I cleared the doubt,if not plz correct me.
    Thanks n Regards,

  178. Hi
    Plese help with this question.
    Anyone used Techexcel?
    Is it possible to automate QA
    that is can we fire tests in automated fashion
    Thanks in advance for your help.

  179. Hi
    I know that mercury interactive tools can be automated for QA, I am trying to do the same for techexcel.
    thanks again

  180. Hi
    Can anyone tell me what is the difference in matric and matrix.
    and also CTC,corp-to-corp, incarporated.

  181. Hi,
    What is the role of complexity measurer in test planning,controlling and monitoring of test?
    Thanks in advance

  182. Hi,
    Everybody Goodmorning,
    Can anyone pls tell me the main difference between bug and defect.
    Thank you.

  183. Hi all,
    The differences between Bug and Defect:
    Bug: A programming error that causes a program to work poorly, produce incorrect results, or crash or A logical error in the system.
    Defect: Deviation from the expected value.
    I think I cleared the doubt, if not please correct me… Thanx in advance

  184. Hi to everybody,
    Khader- thats a gud one so to start with
    Metric – Is a kinda measure for software testing. Here different matrics are planned for software testing.
    Matrix – This is the process of creating a step wise/ matrix(worksheet) of the plans that have been finalized in the metric. Sometimes matrix may include the table of testing procedure carried out by testers.
    Anup -You see whenever an application is to be tested or during creation of a test plan many things are involved like – application diversion, status of the application, kind of test to be performed (Manual,Automated), types of tests to be performed, what to be tested and what not to be tested and so on…. During this phases the complexity involved in each of these are measured so that the time frame and the work load/force to be used are estimated. The complexity measurers are the usual high end testers, managers, sr. QA and sometimes special assigned personnel who carry out these operations.
    Padmaja – You see usually people get confused between Bud, Defect,, Error, Fault and so on. But I want to show a new dimension to it. You see for a programmer an Bug is a Bug in his code, but for a tester it can be a bug and if it causes serious complications to the application it becomes a defect (prioritizations : Min Max).
    There are many situations that a bug can be called a bug, Defect, Error, Fault and so on. To be precise this terminology and definition differs from one tester to another.

  185. hi all,
    this is raghu, can u please tell me the answers for the below question, which was asked in my last interview
    What is the Regular Expression to Yahoo User-id

  186. Hi,
    All of you, I am new to this site,I have a doubt regarding Ttesting job.How r the oppertunities for Software Testers? and how long the boom will be?.

  187. Thanks a lot bobby
    Another question is
    Which of the following is a testing standard?
    3-IEEE 829

  188. Please help me in answering below questions.
    Testing stops after Beta testing(True or false)
    In software removal of a defect can introduce more defects.(True or false)
    which of the following is not a characteristic testability?
    —— is a category of debugging
    a-Brute force
    b-Iterative process
    Both a & b
    None of the above
    Graph based testing comes under which testing methods?
    White box
    Black box
    Green Box
    Yellow Box
    To test a function the programmer has to write a ———- which calls the function and passes it test data.
    None of the above.
    Task Testing uncovers
    Errors in logic
    Timing or behaviour
    Both a & b
    None of the above
    ———- is methods of estimating the amount of functionality required for a programand are used to estimate project
    completion time.
    Function Point
    None of these.
    ————- is a formal verification method.
    Structural induction
    Progressive verification
    Error verification
    None of the above
    ———– involves the use of vigorous mathematical techniques to demonstrate that computer programs have certain desirable
    Stress Testing
    Struvtural Testing
    Formal verufication
    None of the above
    Symbolic execution is ——————
    Validation technique
    Verification Technique
    Both a & b
    None of the above
    ANSI/IEEE std 1008-1987 is used for
    Acceptance testing
    Unit testing
    Integration testing
    Structure testing.
    —————–testing is applied to problem in which the input domain is relatively small but too large to accomodate exhaustive testing
    Boundary Value testing
    Orthogonal testing
    Equivalece partitioning
    None of the above.
    Thanking in advance
    Anup Nair

  189. Hi,
    For the following looping construct describe the set of tests you would develop based on the number of loop iterations in accordance with the loop testing crireria.
    Thanks and Regards
    Anup Nair

  190. Hi,
    Please help me with below set of questions as
    am preparing for a certification in testing
    MTBF(mean time between failure) is
    MTTF/MTTR(mean time to failure,mean time to repair)
    ———– is a software QA activity that focusses on the identication and assesment of potential hazards
    S/w safety
    s/w quality
    s/w hazards
    None of the above
    The probability of failure free operation of a computer program in a specified environment for a specified time.
    s/w quality
    s/w reliability
    s/w reusability
    None of the above
    Verification and validation are
    Mutually exclusive
    Related to each other
    None of the above
    Which statement is incorrect?
    Test results should be inspected meticulously
    A test case must containe the expected o/p or result
    Tests need to be testable and reusable.
    Test Cases should be developed for both valid and invalid input conditions
    The last and probably most important task of the usnit test step is
    Boundary testing
    Anti bugging
    Top down integration
    All of these.
    Sandwich testing means
    Combined testing with white box and black box.
    Combined approach of top down and bottom up integration.
    Combined testing of static and dynamic testing
    Combined approach of alpha and beta testing.
    Alpha and Beta are often more effective as progressive rather than regressive tests.(True/False)
    The port test is unique to maintainence(True/False)
    Fill in the blanks from below choices.
    Load testing ,Beta testing ,Progressive testing ,Comparison Testing ,Usability Testing ,Defect Tracker Tools,
    Error guessing,Capture replay tools,Cause effecting graphics,Quality Control,Code comprehension Tools,Comparator.
    ———— is a systematic approach to selecting a high yield set of test cases that explore combinations of input conditions.
    ————— may be performed numerous times through out the development and test cycle.
    —————- is boundary condition testing
    ————– help us understand unfamiliar code.
    The testing principle
    A test case must containe the expected o/p or result.
    Tests must be unrepeatable and reusable.
    Follows pareto principle
    Only a & c
    Thanking in advance
    Anup Nair

  191. hi raghu,
    regular expression for yahooid is
    i hope i solved your problem.if there are any modifications please let me know.

  192. Hi,
    Cananybody,plz help me “What is the difference between QTP and WINRUNNER? ”
    Thanks in Advance,

  193. Hey Everybody,
    Was surely an eventful week till now – Hopeful to have a great weekend.
    Mohit – Remember the types of Testings – Unit , Integration,Regression, Black/White Box etc., are only concepts that we assign when we carry out testing.
    So as per your question – Integration Testing is nothing but integration of different screens/modules/divisions/ etc., Now testing can be done – Manual, Automated or both is our decision.

  194. Hi All,
    Bobby- First Thanks for your answer but still i suppose that there are type of integration testing like Top down bottom up and sandwich testing etc.
    Can anybody tell me the diffrence between volume testing stress testing and performance testing

  195. Sir,
    My company have developed a web application with and MS Sql server, which I have to test. The company doesn’t have registered testing tools like winrunner, loadrunner. So, I had to download loadrunner 8.0 from Mercury website. It’s for 10-day free trial. Each time I test Sql server load with the tool, I’m left with following error in the execution log:
    In file included from globals.h:4,
    from c:\documents and settings\administrator\local settings\temp\noname5\\combined_noname5.c:2:
    vdf.h:1:7: unbalanced `#endif’
    Can u help me by finding out the solution.

  196. Iam a new member in this gropu.Please can any one explain the difference in testing a web application & Client Server application

  197. Please send me the sample SRS documentations along with manual test cases.
    This site is very good and its very helpful for the testers.

  198. hello sir,
    i know core java and new in Testing now i want to build my career in testing/QA what should i do?
    And how can i get job as fast as possible?
    Please reply me

  199. Hi
    Was busy this whole week so cudnt get even.
    Parameshwer First and foremost both Web application and client server application work on different technologies. To be precise lets differentiate between client server and web application.
    Client Server Here you are talking of a technology involving a server and n (finite – can be 5,10,20,30) number of clients. All these are interconnected by Lan network (star,bus,..). Now the netweork can also involve one or more than one lans.
    Web Application Here you are talking of a technology involving a server and infinite clients. Using any number of lans, wans, gateways and so on. So its like a spiders web interlinked you cannot get the start and finish of it.
    So to test a client server the approach is different when compared to a web application.
    Client-server = Unit Testing, Integration Testing, system testing, performance testing, .
    Web Application = Unit Testing, Integration Testing, Web Server Testing, Web Links testing, Scalability testing.
    I can say tests involved in testing both the technologies can be same but the method and the depth to be tested differs. If you can go through the basics of client-server and web applications you can get a better idea.

  200. Hi,
    Kishore I can one thing is that usually the SRS document differs from product to product, company to company requirements. Ok I will give you a list of all the things involved for your knowledge:
    Study of Basic Requirements
    Diagrammatic explanation of data flow
    Feasibility study
    Hardware involved.
    And so on.
    You can refer to this link for sample:
    So, remember to make a point that SRS is to be created according to the client and the product, you can keep a prototype of the srs document for regulars.
    Coming to manual testcases you have to make a copy depending upon your own requirements and choice.

  201. Hi all,
    Can anybody help how to connect or load application into LoadRunner. I am working on Java Application which is located at Server and I have to access the application thru the server and I want to test the application.
    Thanx in advance.

  202. Hi
    I am new to this Group. Can anyone help me out to know the differences between Winrunner and Quick Test Professional.
    Thanks in advance

  203. What is rational testing? Could you please provide specific examples of rational testing? Thanks.

  204. hello Rob sir and friends,
    please send me winrunner FAQ and documents….


  206. Hi to Everybody,
    Got to stand still for this week to pass by.
    ok to start with.
    Srinivas – First and foremost Loadrunner is a tool used for load and stress testing. This includes adding immense load to the application by giving several commands/operations at the same time. So, using loadrunner is a good choice as it allows creation of virtual users and host machines.
    To be more precise Load Runner allows creration of users and host machines, where each user is assigned a host machine and all the users give out commands at a single instance of time.
    Coming to your question to test java application at the server side, you can assign the path of the server to Loadrunner application and test the application.
    Devi – Your question is difficult to answer because both are different applications and have many similarities and differences. I can suggest use some search engines to get better results.
    Deepu – You have a very good collection of questions. Ok we will take one at a time
    Q1 – Ans – I have studied and gone through your question again and again but got only one answer uniqueness means unique. This can be in reference to column, key elements, processes etc.,
    But if you still have doubt Please laborate the question further.
    Q2 – Ans – This is actually an axis which is used to keep the spiral in a cirle not a litle lower to the below circle not higher to the above circle.
    Q3 – Ans – can have a look at this link for a presentation
    Q4 – Ans – Have a look at these links
    Q5 – Ans – Have a look at these links
    Hope I have given satisfactory answers an corrections are welcome.

  207. I am preparing for interviews, can anyone please send me interview question.(winrunner, QTP),test director
    it will be a big help for me

  208. I am impressed by your site.
    I have a questions like
    1.what is system testing?How we can do?
    2.What are the testing metrics are vailable?
    3.What are the documants prepared by QA?QC?

  209. hi all,
    i am preparing for interviews and i want all TSL functions and system defined functions pls send me about them clearly,

  210. Hi,
    I have few questions and I need answer for that.
    1)What are the documents we are using after fixing the bugs during Defect Analysis phase?
    2)What is Tracebility Metric? Where and How we are using this in testing? (Please give some examples if possible.)
    3) Any example for High Priority and High Severity bug? How does it affect to Customer and Tester?
    Thanks in advance.

  211. Hi
    I am puneet.sir presently i m working in vb and oracle plateform . i want to switch over in testing please send me some faq testing interview material.and sir guide me.
    i m waiting
    with regards
    puneet saini

  212. Hi,
    Had a torrid week. Sorry not to be in touch
    System testing is nothing but testing the system to see if it is up to the required levels or expectations that have been drawn as per the design and development and as per client requirements. Now what all you can do in system testing differs from testing plan to plan. You can include Server-Client Testing, Application Testing (If its Platform Based), Performance Testing ( System when the application is running), Adaptable Testing, Stress Testing and many more.
    Testing Metrics To be precise srujan, metrics differ depending upon what your testing. Like to say there are different metrics for web-based testing, code-based testing(KLoc, KDLoc, Density, , Quality Metrics. Please go through the following links to get a better idea.
    Douments for QA_QC Now this is a good one. But I can say these documents differ from Quality Levels to ISO/CMM/IEE Certifications. I can say refer to this link.

  213. Hi,
    Your first question is not clear, please can you elaborate the question
    Tracebility Metric – This is a measurement done to trace details from the first to the last operation in testing to ensure and maintain completeness in the implementation and delivery of all requirements asked/given by the client. The tracebility metric differs from requirements to code to implementation to design. For instance:
    Requirements traceability metrics measure the level to which software products have implemented requirements allocated from higher-level specifications. Software products include specifications, software design, code, and test cases
    For Bug Priority and severity – Please refer to this link
    Sari – I can say one thing sair, Your qork is to look into quality of the software. And quality standards have to be maintained with is directly proportional to the working of the software. SO, if the software functional is 100% or more then you can get good quality. To ensure that the software should work 100% is to see it should be fool-proof ( error less). That means you have to look into the error-proofing of the application involves testing of the software.
    According to me testing is also a part of Quality. Yes true you true not a part of Testing Team, but if always remember Quality and Testing go hand in hand. Again it depends on the job profile assigned to you.

  214. Hi All,
    Pls can any one send Faqs on testing(Manual & Automation),WinRunner & TestDirector.

  215. hi everyone
    See you can get every every thing on google from
    A-Z of testing for difficult questions or where
    you can’t find information or where you don’t understand the topic then you
    can post these topics,
    UNneccessary don’t ask again-2 about the
    FAQ’s for testing or winrunner, You just type
    “winrunner faq” or “testing faq” in google and click search you will get that.

  216. hi
    I searched on topic for GAMMA TESTING but i haven’t found any proper explanation, will any one help me

  217. As far as i know peer review is a code review or walktrough.Then what is peer review of test case.Does that mean whitebox testing of test case.

  218. hi all
    please specify these terms with simple definations and eg.

  219. Hi,
    Hope to catch all of you in good health
    Vijay –
    1. Gamma Testing – To be precise is a term used in reference to all builds, releases, exes of the application given to testers; clients are called as Gamma Testing. For more details, please refer to this site.
    2. Trial and Error Testing – Can be said is a cycle where the application undergoes trials and the errors process until all the errors are detected and removed. Can say the same as called as Dry Run in programming. Please refer to this site may give you a few details.
    3. Documents – Can be SRS, User Manuals, Quality Manuals and many more depends upon the testing team and the plan and strategy adopted by them. Because documents are referenced at each phase of testing – Installation, Initial Testing, Testing Methods ( Unit, Integration…….). So each tester has to create individual documents for reference.
    4. Your 4th question is not clear vijay. Please elaborate it.
    5. Installation Testing – This involves many things – Server, Client, Network (Proxy, Gateway….), Application , DLLS, Database, database Support, etc.,, So be careful while installation testing and very important is keep everything integrated because if all these work fine the application will work fine.

  220. hi everyone
    will any one tell me the following terminologies
    1. Yellow box testing
    2. green box testing

  221. Hi all,
    I am about to have the interview for the QA postion. I am looking for some questions (with answers) about Mecury Product (Test Director, WinRunner, Load Runner, QuickTest) for the interview. Please email me ( the links or questions or information if you have any. I really need this urgently.
    I really appreciate for your help.

  222. Hi
    1)Can anyone pls tell me how to control documents versions?Because we r using VSS FOR Documents maintaince.when i want to change the document first i can checkout and modify that document and checkin to VSS, version changes automatically.In audits time it’s very difficult to trace the versions
    eg:SRS Document shows 1.7 But history shows version no Can control version nos

  223. hello friends!
    can anybody Expalin about Software Testing Methodology?
    Is there any difference between Testing Methods and Methodologies?
    What is Software Testing Strategy and how it differs from testing methods and methodologies?

  224. Hi,
    Hello Mr . Rob heard from you after so many days. Felt happy you are back.
    Lenin –
    Mutation Testing – Mutation Testing involves running slightly corrupted versions of your application (Beta Release) through your test suite (test cases/ scripts) to see if any test cases flag the variations as defects. This is done in iterative form until all the bugs are removed.
    Krishna –
    Software Testing Methodology – Involves developing a methodology(standards) for software testing. This involves many things – Application Planning (SDLC), Test planning, Test Strategy (flow), Types of Tests, and many more. The first step of a tester is to create a standard methodology for testing.
    You have a look at these sites for further details.
    2. Yes there is a difference between testing methods and methodologies. You will find answer to this question in the link given above.
    3. Testing Strategy is creating a procedure of how to test the software. Creating a strategy – what all to be tested(modules, screens, processes…), time limits for each testing process, Automated/Manual Testing etc., so, everything has to be planned and implemented.
    Listen take help of , for queries like these, you will get many resources and answers to all your questions.
    Hope I have given you the needed information.

  225. hi all ,
    i am in need of FAQ’s of winrunner , testdirector , silktest, QTP. Any one please send me those as soon as possible
    thank u ,

  226. It’s really wonderful job u guys are doing and please let me know if i can do any thing for u

  227. can any one send me.How to prepare for CSTE exam and send me the material to prepare for CSTE exam
    with thanks and regards

  228. Hi friends,
    iam new to this site. let me know how to join this group for regular contact?

    Acceptance Testing: Testing conducted to enable a user/customer to determine whether to accept a software product. Normally performed to validate the software meets a set of agreed acceptance criteria.
    Accessibility Testing: Verifying a product is accessible to the people having disabilities (deaf, blind, mentally disabled etc.).
    Ad Hoc Testing: Similar to exploratory testing, but often taken to mean that the testers have significant understanding of the software before testing it.
    Agile Testing: Testing practice for projects using agile methodologies, treating development as the customer of testing and emphasizing a test-first design paradigm.
    Alpha testing: Testing of an application when development is nearing completion; minor design changes may still be made as a result of such testing. Typically done by end-users or others, not by programmers or testers.
    Application Binary Interface (ABI): A specification defining requirements for portability of applications in binary forms across different system platforms and environments.
    Application Programming Interface (API): A formalized set of software calls and routines that can be referenced by an application program in order to access supporting system or network services.
    Automated Software Quality (ASQ): The use of software tools, such as automated testing tools, to improve software quality.
    Automated Testing:
    · Testing employing software tools which execute tests without manual intervention. Can be applied in GUI, performance, API, etc. testing.
    · The use of software to control the execution of tests, the comparison of actual outcomes to predicted outcomes, the setting up of test preconditions, and other test control and test reporting functions.
    Click this Link for : Approaches for automated testing tools
    B (return to top of page)
    Backus-Naur Form: A Meta language used to formally describe the syntax of a language.
    Basic Block: A sequence of one or more consecutive, executable statements containing no branches.
    Basis Path Testing: A white box test case design technique that uses the algorithmic flow of the program to design tests.
    Basis Set: The set of tests derived using basis path testing.
    Baseline: The point at which some deliverable produced during the software engineering process is put under formal change control.
    Beta Testing: Testing when development and testing are essentially completed and final bugs and problems need to be found before final release. Typically done by end-users or others, not by programmers or testers.
    Binary Portability Testing: Testing an executable application for portability across system platforms and environments, usually for conformation to an ABI specification.
    Black Box Testing: Testing based on an analysis of the specification of a piece of software without reference to its internal workings. The goal is to test how well the component conforms to the published requirements for the component.
    Bottom Up Testing: An approach to integration testing where the lowest level components are tested first, then used to facilitate the testing of higher level components. The process is repeated until the component at the top of the hierarchy is tested.
    Boundary Testing: Test which focus on the boundary or limit conditions of the software being tested. (Some of these tests are stress tests).
    Bug: A fault in a program which causes the program to perform in an unintended or unanticipated manner.
    Boundary Value Analysis: BVA is similar to Equivalence Partitioning but focuses on “corner cases” or values that are usually out of range as defined by the specification. It means that if a function expects all values in range of negative 100 to positive 1000, test inputs would include negative 101 and positive 1001.
    Branch Testing: Testing in which all branches in the program source code are tested at least once.
    Breadth Testing: A test suite that exercises the full functionality of a product but does not test features in detail.
    C (return to top of page)
    CAST: Computer Aided Software Testing.
    Capture/Replay Tool: A test tool that records test input as it is sent to the software under test. The input cases stored can then be used to reproduce the test at a later time. Most commonly applied to GUI test tools.
    CMM: The Capability Maturity Model for Software (CMM or SW-CMM) is a model for judging the maturity of the software processes of an organization and for identifying the key practices that are required to increase the maturity of these processes.
    Cause Effect Graph: A graphical representation of inputs and the associated outputs effects which can be used to design test cases.
    Code Complete: Phase of development where functionality is implemented in entirety; bug fixes are all that are left. All functions found in the Functional Specifications have been implemented.
    Code Coverage: An analysis method that determines which parts of the software have been executed (covered) by the test case suite and which parts have not been executed and therefore may require additional attention.
    Code Inspection: A formal testing technique where the programmer reviews source code with a group who ask questions analyzing the program logic, analyzing the code with respect to a checklist of historically common programming errors, and analyzing its compliance with coding standards.
    Code Walkthrough: A formal testing technique where source code is traced by a group with a small set of test cases, while the state of program variables is manually monitored, to analyze the programmer’s logic and assumptions.
    Compatibility Testing: Testing whether software is compatible with other elements of a system with which it should operate, e.g. browsers, Operating Systems, or hardware.
    Component: A minimal software item for which a separate specification is available.
    Component Testing: See Unit Testing.
    Concurrency Testing: Multi-user testing geared towards determining the effects of accessing the same application code, module or database records. Identifies and measures the level of locking, deadlocking and use of single-threaded code and locking semaphores.
    Conformance Testing: The process of testing that an implementation conforms to the specification on which it is based. Usually applied to testing conformance to a formal standard.
    Context Driven Testing: The context-driven testing is flavor of Agile Testing that advocates continuous and creative evaluation of testing opportunities in light of the potential information revealed and the value of that information to the organization right now or it can be defined as testing driven by an understanding of the environment, culture, and intended use of software. For example, the testing approach for life-critical medical equipment software would be completely different than that for a low-cost computer game.
    Conversion Testing: Testing of programs or procedures used to convert data from existing systems for use in replacement systems.
    Cyclomatic Complexity: A measure of the logical complexity of an algorithm, used in white-box testing.
    D (return to top of page)
    Data Flow Diagram: A modeling notation that represents a functional decomposition of a system.
    Data Driven Testing: Testing in which the action of a test case is parameterized by externally defined data values, maintained as a file or spreadsheet. A common technique in Automated Testing.
    Dependency Testing: Examines an application’s requirements for pre-existing software, initial states and configuration in order to maintain proper functionality.
    Depth Testing: A test that exercises a feature of a product in full detail.
    Dynamic Testing: Testing software through executing it. See also Static Testing.
    E (return to top of page)
    Emulator: A device, computer program, or system that accepts the same inputs and produces the same outputs as a given system.
    Endurance Testing: Checks for memory leaks or other problems that may occur with prolonged execution.
    End-to-End testing: Testing a complete application environment in a situation that mimics real-world use, such as interacting with a database, using network communications, or interacting with other hardware, applications, or systems if appropriate.
    Equivalence Class: A portion of a component’s input or output domains for which the component’s behavior is assumed to be the same from the component’s specification.
    Equivalence Partitioning: A test case design technique for a component in which test cases are designed to execute representatives from equivalence classes.
    Exhaustive Testing: Testing which covers all combinations of input values and preconditions for an element of the software under test.
    Exploratory testing: Often taken to mean a creative, informal software test that is not based on formal test plans or test cases; testers may be learning the software as they test it.
    F (return to top of page)
    Failover Tests: Failover Tests verify of redundancy mechanisms while under load. For example, such testing determines what will happen if multiple web servers are being used under peak anticipate load, and one of them dies. Does the load balancer react quickly enough? Can the other web servers handle the sudden dumping of extra load? This sort of testing allows technicians to address problems in advance, in the comfort of a testing situation, rather than in the heat of a production outage.
    Functional Decomposition: A technique used during planning, analysis and design; creates a functional hierarchy for the software.
    Functional Specification: A document that describes in detail the characteristics of the product with regard to its intended features.
    Functional Testing: See also Black Box Testing.
    · Testing the features and operational behavior of a product to ensure they correspond to its specifications.
    · Testing that ignores the internal mechanism of a system or component and focuses solely on the outputs generated in response to selected inputs and execution conditions.
    G (return to top of page)
    Glass Box Testing: A synonym for White Box Testing.
    Gorilla Testing: Testing one particular module, functionality heavily.
    Gray Box Testing: A combination of Black Box and White Box testing methodologies: testing a piece of software against its specification but using some knowledge of its internal workings.
    H (return to top of page)
    High Order Tests: Black-box tests conducted once the software has been integrated.
    I (return to top of page)
    Incremental Integration testing: Continuous testing of an application as new functionality is added; requires that various aspects of an application’s functionality be independent enough to work separately before all parts of the program are completed, or that test drivers be developed as needed; done by programmers or by testers.
    Independent Test Group (ITG): A group of people whose primary responsibility is software testing,
    Inspection: A group review quality improvement process for written material. It consists of two aspects; product (document itself) improvement and process improvement (of both document production and inspection).
    Integration Testing: Testing of combined parts of an application to determine if they function together correctly. Usually performed after unit and functional testing. This type of testing is especially relevant to client/server and distributed systems.
    Installation Testing: Confirms that the application under test recovers from expected or unexpected events without loss of data or functionality. Events can include shortage of disk space, unexpected loss of communication, or power out conditions.
    L (return to top of page)
    Load Testing: Load Tests are end to end performance tests under anticipated production load. The primary objective of this test is to determine the response times for various time critical transactions and business processes and that they are within documented expectations (or Service Level Agreements – SLAs). The test also measures the capability of the application to function correctly under load, by measuring transaction pass/fail/error rates.
    This is a major test, requiring substantial input from the business, so that anticipated activity can be accurately simulated in a test situation. If the project has a pilot in production then logs from the pilot can be used to generate ‘usage profiles’ that can be used as part of the testing process, and can even be used to ‘drive’ large portions of the Load Test.
    Load testing must be executed on “today’s” production size database, and optionally with a “projected” database. If some database tables will be much larger in some months time, then Load testing should also be conducted against a projected database. It is important that such tests are repeatable as they may need to be executed several times in the first year of wide scale deployment, to ensure that new releases and changes in database size do not push response times beyond prescribed SLAs.
    See Performance Testing also.
    Localization Testing: This term refers to making software specifically designed for a specific locality.
    Loop Testing: A white box testing technique that exercises program loops.
    M (return to top of page)
    Metric: A standard of measurement. Software metrics are the statistics describing the structure or content of a program. A metric should be a real objective measurement of something such as number of bugs per lines of code.
    Monkey Testing: Testing a system or an Application on the fly, i.e. just few tests here and there to ensure the system or an application does not crash out.
    Mutation testing: A method for determining if a set of test data or test cases is useful, by deliberately introducing various code changes (‘bugs’) and retesting with the original test data/cases to determine if the ‘bugs’ are detected. Proper implementation requires large computational resources.
    N (return to top of page)
    Network Sensitivity Tests: Network sensitivity tests are tests that set up scenarios of varying types of network activity (traffic, error rates…), and then measure the impact of that traffic on various applications that are bandwidth dependant. Very ‘chatty’ applications can appear to be more prone to response time degradation under certain conditions than other applications that actually use more bandwidth. For example, some applications may degrade to unacceptable levels of response time when a certain pattern of network traffic uses 50% of available bandwidth, while other applications are virtually un-changed in response time even with 85% of available bandwidth consumed elsewhere.
    This is a particularly important test for deployment of a time critical application over a WAN.
    Negative Testing: Testing aimed at showing software does not work. Also known as “test to fail”.
    N+1 Testing: A variation of Regression Testing. Testing conducted with multiple cycles in which errors found in test cycle N are resolved and the solution is retested in test cycle N+1. The cycles are typically repeated until the solution reaches a steady state and there are no errors. See also Regression Testing.
    P (return to top of page)
    Path Testing: Testing in which all paths in the program source code are tested at least once.
    Performance Testing: Testing conducted to evaluate the compliance of a system or component with specified performance requirements. Often this is performed using an automated test tool to simulate large number of users. Also know as “Load Testing”.
    Performance Tests are tests that determine end to end timing (benchmarking) of various time critical business processes and transactions, while the system is under low load, but with a production sized database. This sets ‘best possible’ performance expectation under a given configuration of infrastructure. It also highlights very early in the testing process if changes need to be made before load testing should be undertaken. For example, a customer search may take 15 seconds in a full sized database if indexes had not been applied correctly, or if an SQL ‘hint’ was incorporated in a statement that had been optimized with a much smaller database. Such performance testing would highlight such a slow customer search transaction, which could be remediate prior to a full end to end load test.
    Positive Testing: Testing aimed at showing software works. Also known as “test to pass”.
    Protocol Tests: Protocol tests involve the mechanisms used in an application, rather than the applications themselves. For example, a protocol test of a web server may will involve a number of HTTP interactions that would typically occur if a web browser were to interact with a web server – but the test would not be done using a web browser. LoadRunner is usually used to drive load into a system using VUGen at a protocol level, so that a small number of computers (Load Generators) can be used to simulate many thousands of users.
    Q (return to top of page)
    Quality Assurance: All those planned or systematic actions necessary to provide adequate confidence that a product or service is of the type and quality needed and expected by the customer.
    Quality Audit: A systematic and independent examination to determine whether quality activities and related results comply with planned arrangements and whether these arrangements are implemented effectively and are suitable to achieve objectives.
    Quality Circle: A group of individuals with related interests that meet at regular intervals to consider problems or other matters related to the quality of outputs of a process and to the correction of problems or to the improvement of quality.
    Quality Control: The operational techniques and the activities used to fulfill and verify requirements of quality.
    Quality Management: That aspect of the overall management function that determines and implements the quality policy.
    Quality Policy: The overall intentions and direction of an organization as regards quality as formally expressed by top management.
    Quality System: The organizational structure, responsibilities, procedures, processes, and resources for implementing quality management.
    R (return to top of page)
    Race Condition: A cause of concurrency problems. Multiple accesses to a shared resource, at least one of which is a write, with no mechanism used by either to moderate simultaneous access.
    Ramp Testing: Continuously raising an input signal until the system breaks down.
    Recovery Testing: Confirms that the program recovers from expected or unexpected events without loss of data or functionality. Events can include shortage of disk space, unexpected loss of communication, or power out conditions.
    Regression Testing: Retesting a previously tested program following modification to ensure that faults have not been introduced or uncovered as a result of the changes made.
    Release Candidate: A pre-release version, which contains the desired functionality of the final version, but which needs to be tested for bugs (which ideally should be removed before the final version is released).
    S (return to top of page)
    Sanity Testing: Brief test of major functional elements of a piece of software to determine if it’s basically operational. See also Smoke Testing.
    Scalability Testing: Performance testing focused on ensuring the application under test gracefully handles increases in work load.
    Security Testing: Testing which confirms that the program can restrict access to authorized personnel and that the authorized personnel can access the functions available to their security level.
    Smoke Testing: Typically an initial testing effort to determine if a new software version is performing well enough to accept it for a major testing effort. For example, if the new software is crashing systems every 5 minutes, bogging down systems to a crawl, or corrupting databases, the software may not be in a ‘sane’ enough condition to warrant further testing in its current state.
    Soak Testing: Soak testing is running a system at high levels of load for prolonged periods of time. A soak test would normally execute several times more transactions in an entire day (or night) than would be expected in a busy day, to identify and performance problems that appear after a large number of transactions have been executed. Also, due to memory leaks and other defects, it is possible that a system may ‘stop’ working after a certain number of transactions have been processed. It is important to identify such situations in a test environment.
    Sociability (sensitivity) Tests: Sensitivity analysis testing can determine impact of activities in one system on another related system. Such testing involves a mathematical approach to determine the impact that one system will have on another system. For example, web enabling a customer ‘order status’ facility may impact on performance of telemarketing screens that interrogate the same tables in the same database. The issue of web enabling can be that it is more successful than anticipated and can result in many more enquiries than originally envisioned, which loads the IT systems with more work than had been planned.
    Static Analysis: Analysis of a program carried out without executing the program.
    Static Analyzer: A tool that carries out static analysis.
    Static Testing: Analysis of a program carried out without executing the program.
    Storage Testing: Testing that verifies the program under test stores data files in the correct directories and that it reserves sufficient space to prevent unexpected termination resulting from lack of space. This is external storage as opposed to internal storage.
    Stress Testing: Stress Tests determine the load under which a system fails, and how it fails. This is in contrast to Load Testing, which attempts to simulate anticipated load. It is important to know in advance if a ‘stress’ situation will result in a catastrophic system failure, or if everything just “goes really slow”. There are various varieties of Stress Tests, including spike, stepped and gradual ramp-up tests. Catastrophic failures require restarting various infrastructures and contribute to downtime, a stress-full environment for support staff and managers, as well as possible financial losses. This test is one of the most fundamental load and performance tests.
    Structural Testing: Testing based on an analysis of internal workings and structure of a piece of software. See also White Box Testing.
    System Testing: Testing that attempts to discover defects that are properties of the entire system rather than of its individual components. It’s a black-box type testing that is based on overall requirements specifications; covers all combined parts of a system.
    T (return to top of page)
    Targeted Infrastructure Test: Targeted Infrastructure Tests are isolated tests of each layer and or component in an end to end application configuration. It includes communications infrastructure, Load Balancers, Web Servers, Application Servers, Crypto cards, Citrix Servers, Database… allowing for identification of any performance issues that would fundamentally limit the overall ability of a system to deliver at a given performance level.
    Each test can be quite simple, For example, a test ensuring that 500 concurrent (idle) sessions can be maintained by Web Servers and related equipment should be executed prior to a full 500 user end to end performance test, as a configuration file somewhere in the system may limit the number of users to less than 500. It is much easier to identify such a configuration issue in a Targeted Infrastructure Test than in a full end to end test.
    Testability: The degree to which a system or component facilitates the establishment of test criteria and the performance of tests to determine whether those criteria have been met.
    · The process of exercising software to verify that it satisfies specified requirements and to detect errors.
    · The process of analyzing a software item to detect the differences between existing and required conditions (that is, bugs), and to evaluate the features of the software item.
    · The process of operating a system or component under specified conditions, observing or recording the results, and making an evaluation of some aspect of the system or component.
    Test Automation: See Automated Testing.
    Test Bed: An execution environment configured for testing. May consist of specific hardware, OS, network topology, configuration of the product under test, other application or system software, etc. The Test Plan for a project should enumerate the test beds(s) to be used.
    Test Case:
    · Test Case is a commonly used term for a specific test. This is usually the smallest unit of testing. A Test Case will consist of information such as requirements testing, test steps, verification steps, prerequisites, outputs, test environment, etc.
    · A set of inputs, execution preconditions, and expected outcomes developed for a particular objective, such as to exercise a particular program path or to verify compliance with a specific requirement.
    Test Driven Development: Testing methodology associated with Agile Programming in which every chunk of code is covered by unit tests, which must all pass all the time, in an effort to eliminate unit-level and regression bugs during development. Practitioners of TDD write a lot of tests, i.e. an equal number of lines of test code to the size of the production code.
    Test Driver: A program or test tool used to execute a tests. Also known as a Test Harness.
    Test Environment: The hardware and software environment in which tests will be run, and any other software with which the software under test interacts when under test including stubs and test drivers.
    Test First Design: Test-first design is one of the mandatory practices of Extreme Programming (XP).It requires that programmers do not write any production code until they have first written a unit test.
    Test Harness: A program or test tool used to execute a test. Also known as a Test Driver.
    Test Plan: A document describing the scope, approach, resources, and schedule of intended testing activities. It identifies test items, the features to be tested, the testing tasks, who will do each task, and any risks requiring contingency planning.
    Test Procedure: A document providing detailed instructions for the execution of one or more test cases.
    Test Script: Commonly used to refer to the instructions for a particular test that will be carried out by an automated test tool.
    Test Specification: A document specifying the test approach for a software feature or combination or features and the inputs, predicted results and execution conditions for the associated tests.
    Test Suite: A collection of tests used to validate the behavior of a product. The scope of a Test Suite varies from organization to organization. There may be several Test Suites for a particular product for example. In most cases however a Test Suite is a high level concept, grouping together hundreds or thousands of tests related by what they are intended to test.
    Test Tools: Computer programs used in the testing of a system, a component of the system, or its documentation.
    Thread Testing: A variation of top-down testing where the progressive integration of components follows the implementation of subsets of the requirements, as opposed to the integration of components by successively lower levels.
    Thick Client Application Tests: A Thick Client (also referred to as a fat client) is a purpose built piece of software that has been developed to work as a client with a server. It often has substantial business logic embedded within it, beyond the simple validation that is able to be achieved through a web browser. A thick client is often able to be very efficient with the amount of data that is transferred between it and its server, but is also often sensitive to any poor communications links. Testing tools such as Win Runner are able to be used to drive a Thick Client, so that response time can be measured under a variety of circumstances within a testing regime.
    Developing a load test based on thick client activity usually requires significantly more effort for the coding stage of testing, as VUGen must be used to simulate the protocol between the client and the server. That protocol may be database connection based, COM/DCOM based, a proprietary communications protocol or even a combination of protocols.
    Thin Client Application Tests: An internet browser that is used to run an application is said to be a thin client. But even thin clients can consume substantial amounts of CPU time on the computer that they are running on. This is particularly the case with complex web pages that utilize many recently introduced features to liven up a web page. Rendering a page after hitting a SUBMIT button may take several seconds even though the server may have responded to the request in less than one second. Testing tools such as WinRunner are able to be used to drive a Thin Client, so that response time can be measured from a user’s perspective, rather than from a protocol level.
    Top Down Testing: An approach to integration testing where the component at the top of the component hierarchy is tested first, with lower level components being simulated by stubs. Tested components are then used to test lower level components. The process is repeated until the lowest level components have been tested.
    Traceability Matrix: A document showing the relationship between Test Requirements and Test Cases.
    Tuning Cycle Tests: A series of test cycles can be executed with a primary purpose of identifying tuning opportunities. Tests can be refined and re-targeted ‘on the fly’ to allow technology support staff to make configuration changes so that the impact of those changes can be immediately measured.
    U (return to top of page)
    Usability Testing: Testing the ease with which users can learn and use a product.
    Use Case: The specification of tests that are conducted from the end-user perspective. Use cases tend to focus on operating software as an end-user would conduct their day-to-day activities.
    User Acceptance Testing: A formal product evaluation performed by a customer as a condition of purchase.
    Unit Testing: The most ‘micro’ scale of testing; to test particular functions or code modules. Typically done by the programmer and not by testers, as it requires detailed knowledge of the internal program design and code. Not always easily done unless the application has a well-designed architecture with tight code; may require developing test driver modules or test harnesses.
    V (return to top of page)
    Validation: The process of evaluating software at the end of the software development process to ensure compliance with software requirements. The techniques for validation are testing, inspection and reviewing.
    Verification: The process of determining whether of not the products of a given phase of the software development cycle meet the implementation steps and can be traced to the incoming objectives established during the previous phase. The techniques for verification are testing, inspection and reviewing.
    Volume Testing: Testing which confirms that any values that may become large over time (such as accumulated counts, logs, and data files), can be accommodated by the program and will not cause the program to stop working or degrade its operation in any manner.
    Volume Tests are often most appropriate to Messaging, Batch and Conversion processing type situations. In a Volume Test, there is often no such measure as Response time. Instead, there is usually a concept of Throughput.
    A key to effective volume testing is the identification of the relevant capacity drivers. A capacity driver is something that directly impacts on the total processing capacity. For a messaging system, a capacity driver may well be the size of messages being processed. For batch processing, the type of records in the batch as well as the size of the database that the batch process interfaces with will have an impact on the number of batch records that can be processed per second.
    W (return to top of page)
    Walkthrough: A review of requirements, designs or code characterized by the author of the material under review guiding the progression of the review.
    White Box Testing: Testing based on an analysis of internal workings and structure of a piece of software. Includes techniques such as Branch Testing and Path Testing. Also known as Structural Testing and Glass Box Testing. Contrast with Black Box Testing.
    Workflow Testing: Scripted end-to-end testing which duplicates specific workflows which are expected to be utilized by the end-user.
    Different approaches for automated testing tools
    · A common type of automated tool is the ‘record/playback’ type. For example, a tester could click through all combinations of menu choices, dialog box choices, buttons, etc. in an application GUI and have them ‘recorded’ and the results logged by a tool. The ‘recording’ is typically in the form of text based on a scripting language that is interpretable by the testing tool. If new buttons are added, or some underlying code in the application is changed, etc. the application might then be retested by just ‘playing back’ the ‘recorded’ actions, and comparing the logging results to check effects of the changes. The problem with such tools is that if there are continual changes to the system being tested, the ‘recordings’ may have to be changed so much that it becomes very time-consuming to continuously update the scripts. Additionally, interpretation and analysis of results (screens, data, logs, etc.) can be a difficult task. Note that there are record/playback tools for text-based interfaces also, and for all types of platforms.
    · Another common type of approach for automation of functional testing is ‘data-driven’ or ‘keyword-driven’ automated testing, in which the test drivers are separated from the data and/or actions utilized in testing (an ‘action’ would be something like ‘enter a value in a text box’). Test drivers can be in the form of automated test tools or custom-written testing software. The data and actions can be more easily maintained – such as via a spreadsheet – since they are separate from the test drivers. The test drivers ‘read’ the data/action information to perform specified tests. This approach can enable more efficient control, development, documentation, and maintenance of automated tests/test cases.

  230. hi,,can u please tell me the differances between mercury and rationa testing tools,,
    please tell me the rough idea of the prices of each tool,,and on which basis the prices will be based and changed,,

  231. Hi All,
    Can any one tell me what is White Box(WB) testing and an example for it. Can WB be automated ? if yes give example.
    Thanks in anticipation

  232. hi..
    it really nice.. i need a help..
    i would like to download the winRunner user’s Guide.. can u assit me..

  233. hi..
    it really nice.. i need a help..
    i would like to download the manual teating and Qtp with faq
    Guide.. can u assit me..

  234. Hi all,
    Do u know we can do data driven testing in qtp without using the data driver wizard. I did that
    using for…next loop. try it out u’r self.

  235. Hi anand,
    The only difference between mercury interactive tools and rational tools is supporting Applets.
    mercury tools doesn’t support applets unless java plugin’s aren’t installed into it.
    Other difference is in rational sqa robot u can insert multiple various chkpoints on an object or appl at a time whereas in winrunner it is not possible.
    i will research more on u’r question and get back.

  236. Hi,
    Can somebody answer the following two different questions?
    1. what is Globalization and localisation testing?
    2. What ss SQL/XML injection testing? This is part of Blackbox or White box testing?

  237. Hi all,
    plzz somebody give me some information regarding QTP(quick test professional 8.0) batch runner.
    thanks in advance

  238. hi
    can anybody tell me what is diffrence between testcase ,test scenerios and test script in manual testing?

  239. Respected Rob sir ,
    I think you are doing great job sir !
    sir i donno how regular expressions are used in winrunner
    can u please explain what these regular expressions are and how they effect testing, what are the advantages
    thanking u sir ,
    yours truely,

  240. Hi to all,
    I found this site is very usefull for testers, i just want to know how to start working on QTP.Is there any site from where i can get the free study material of QTP.

  241. Hi Everybody,
    I just saw this site, i feel this iste would be a great help for testers, i believe i would also gain knowledge from you all.

  242. In the Software Development Life Cycle,both the Development activity and the testing activities starts almost at the same time with the same informations in their hands. The development team will apply “do-procedures” to achieve the goals and the testing team will apply “Check-procedures” to verify that. Its a parallel process and finally arrives to the product with almost no bugs or errors

  243. oops… that wasnt for here
    Hi all,
    Great job by Rob, bobby n iranna.. gained lotta knowledge today by going through this page from top tobottom. most of my queries in mind are answered without questioning nd thanks a lot to u all.. my suggestion to other new comers is to go through the page before asking the basic questions…. almost there r answers to every basic thing in testing. Do all wish me good luck with my interview tommarow.
    Thanks once again

  244. Hi All ,
    I am new to this site..this is a real good site with lotz of info.
    I am new to QA field…..I want little info regarding versions…What Test Director version & WinRunner Version are compatible with QTP 6.5?
    Thankz in Advance

  245. Sir, I am using winrunner with java add-in. It works fine while working with my application(applet). I am stuck in one place because of the following error:”AUT is not responding. Try to increase the timeout control variable.” I tried to use sychronization point, wait(), & jdc_aut_connect(). But couldnt find the solution. please help me solving this problem. Thank u in advance.

  246. How would you determine the performance of a web application by looking at the values of ‘Response Time’ and ‘Pages Per Second’?

  247. Hi All,
    I am little confused regarding “Keyword view” of QTP 8.0 and “Tree View” of QTP6.5…..Can anyone help me by telling the SIGNIFICANT differences between them???
    Thankz in Advance

  248. Please give me some info about SQL queries.Are these important in testing.Give me some Web address where i can find out some details.

  249. Can you tell the hierarchy of Test Plan, Test Specification, Test Strategy, Test Case? Give brief explanation of all those things?

  250. hi, i m umesh , can any budy give me the name of good website where i can get the information about the winrunner,loadrunner and silk question and answers or any budy have any kind of material which can help me if have pls send it to me my email id is

  251. Hi jaya,
    ThanQ very much for giving the answer for yahoo user id, but i don’t know whether it is exact or not?
    could u give the confirmation please…

  252. Could you give answer to question?
    How many folders are created when a winrunner script is saved? what are they ?& what is the use of db folder in it?

  253. Hi all,
    Can any body answer my question…
    What are the bug types?
    Thanx in advance

  254. Hi all
    Is a “A fast database retrieval rate” a testable requirement?
    How do you know your code has met specifications when there are no specifications?

  255. Munaaf, welcome to the wonderful world of software testing!
    Your two questions really are the same. How do you test something when you don’t know what to test or what it should do? The long and the short of it is that an experienced tester, leveraging industry standards and previous experience, can basically “guesstimate” what the specifications and requirements are. If you know what the product should do, it’s pretty easy to say what 9/10’s of the requirements should be (and that’s usually 5/10’s more than you’d get if they were formally documented *grin*).
    To be a bit more specific, “A fast database retrieval rate” means that you need to know what the product is expected to do and the number of actions (e.g. users) that it needs to be able to process to meet some business expectation. You can forumulate a pretty good guess as to what “fast” means and then you test to that.
    I wish that there was an easier answer, but this is the reality of the world today.
    Good luck!

  256. Hi !!!
    Can anybody please send the sample STP and STC for manual testing…

  257. hi !!!
    anyone please suggest me testing tool for embedded product testing.
    Ajay Kumar

  258. Hi
    Thanks Rob
    Please tell me what is the diffrence between test
    strategy and test methodology.

  259. Munaaf, I tend not to answer questions that can easily be found via effective use of a search engine, say Google, but I’ll make an exception today since I’m such a nice guy *grin*
    o Strategy – a particular plan or technique
    o Methodology – a set of rules, procedures or principles that you follow
    If you notice, the difference is very subtle (especially for any non-native English speakers). I’m usually horrible at giving examples, but I’ll give this a shot:
    o Testing Strategy – monkey testing, smoke testing, regression testing, etc
    o Testing Methodology – automated testing
    The biggest problem that you’ll find is that people use the two terms interchangably. Just remember that “methodology” is the bigger thing. It’s what governs what “strategies” that you choose or how you implement them.
    I hope that this has been remotely helpful!

  260. Thanks for your advise Mr.Rob I have small doubt.
    In yahoo login page if we enter a wrong password it goes to old version of login page with a msg. It’s a bug or requirement?

  261. It’s not really possible to know if a particular “feature” of a product was indended or not without knowledge of the development process. I’m sure if you asked any developer of that product, they could tell you if it is intentional or some side-effect.
    Take care!

  262. Hi all,
    I just came to know about the site. It will really help testers. I got solutions for few doubts which i was having from a long time.
    I was working in Automation using QTP8.0 , when i ty to record the object is not getting identified. When i was just using the application i can click on the object.

  263. hai,
    This is very good information u are providing. through this we can improve our knowledge.
    thanks once again.

  264. Hi !!!!!
    can anyone please provide me Ratioanl robot tutorial / reference guide
    Ajay Kumar

  265. Hello pals,
    One of the interview question is wat standards ur company follows.My company is not a certified company.but v do the testing in a systematic way.So wat would be my answer in such case.Could anyone help me out.

  266. Hi,
    Can somebody tell me if WhiteBox testing is possible using QTP 8.2 ?
    Thanks in advance !!!

  267. Hello Sir,
    my question is,
    why i am fit for software tester’s job?
    pls send answer.

  268. Hi all,
    Can any body answer my question…
    What are the bug types?
    Thanx in advance

  269. Hi everyone,
    Can anyone please help me by providing some information on testing trading softare(trading,stocks,derivatives,dividends,equities etc)
    like how the testcases are written
    Are there any special tools to test this
    Does any mathematical or algorthmic knowledge is required
    any information regarding this is highly helpful
    Thank you for your time

  270. Can anybody guid me on software tesing i am new for this but i am intersted on testing can please guid me.
    Thanks & regards

  271. Hi,
    How do i apply for the certfied software tester exam. can anyone please tell me the procedure involved in it.

  272. Hi
    I am Annu.sir presently i m working in System Admin . i want to switch over in testing please send me some faq testing interview material.and sir guide me.
    i m waiting
    with regards

  273. plz tell me the difference between fungtional script and performance script
    Thanking u

  274. Hi All,
    I am new to software Testing.Just underwent Testing Training from an institution. Looking for testing jobs. Appreciate your help if you could send interview /faq questions on Winrunner, Loadrunner, Silk Test, Rational Robot , TestDirector, Bug tracking tool and general software testing questions.
    Your help at the earliest is greatly appreciated.

  275. hi
    i find this site useful . i need winrunner tutorial so that i can apply for the product which we r testing becoz ur company wants to automate testing. but i dont have real time knowledge of using winrunner for a product .
    please send me information to my email id

  276. Hi All,
    can any body explain what could be the possible test case for simple dotpen.

  277. Hi All,
    Can anyone send me some QA interview questions and FAQs.plz send me ASAP , i am going to attend an interview on monday.
    thanks in Advance

  278. 1.How do you connect to database using Quik test professional?
    2.when you test a web-based application using win runner and qtp,what is the difference?
    3.what is the difference between web based window application and static based window application?

  279. Hi guys,
    I just skimmed over the website (or the forum) and realized that most of you (are Indians or from India) just keep posting the questions. What do you think? Is that fair to the owner of the webiste. If you guys keep doing like this, it will not work out. Please help each other, don’t just keep asking the questions.
    I apologize if I make some of you upset.
    Hope that you understand,

  280. hi,
    I have gone thru all ur answers from u for each ones questions,Really i learned a lot from it.
    * Can u please tell me diff between smoke testing and sanity testing.
    * Tell me whether grey box testing is carried out in system testing.And also tell me what is system testing and integration testing ,exactly What is the process carried out in both these type of testing.
    * how the web based testing is carried out.What is the important thing to be noted in web based testing.
    Please answer my queries…..

  281. hi rob,
    Can u please answer my queries…….
    * what are the roles of quality engineer and test engineer?
    * what is threshold testing?

  282. Hi,
    As I have joined a new Organisation and I am supposed to work on LoadRunner, can anyone help me to get the notes on Scripting through use of LoadRunner as I want to learn working on it as soon as possible.
    Thanks in advance,

  283. Hi all…
    I heard that Database checkpoints are used to test the database in WinRunner… Can u plz tell how the database will be tested manually…

  284. Hi,
    If the requirement are changing continuously… what’ll happen???
    And also plz give me a brief idea about VSS(Visual Source Safe)??

  285. Hi
    How many types of metric are there??? As per my knowledge there are Functional point metrics and lines of code metrics… (plz correct me if I was wrong…)
    How do we calculate defect density metrics???

  286. hi,
    for folks using loadrunner,
    when u r repeated load testing ur application and wanna compare the test runs, there is option in load analysis which compares all the previous runs and thereby we can have data collection and observer how the tuning has helped in achieving the required SLA goals.

  287. hi,
    this is the first time i visited this site its very nice, i was serching for any docs on QTP but i didnt get,but i saw this site very interesting. can any one please send me any docs or FAQs on QTP

  288. Hi to everybody,
    Sorry not in touch was busy
    Suma – Listen Database Checkpoints are maintained to know the performance of the database under stress. So, if you want to test the database manually you cannot do stress testing. You can do normal testing of passing transactions and gauging the performance.
    If the requirements change – that is a difficult task because requirements change can take place at any level. You have o change many things, the SRS changes, updating the testing documents, test cases etc.,
    There are innumerable types of Metrics to name a few: Faulty Density, Defect Density, Defect Indices, Design Structure, Software Purity Level, Test Coverage etc.,
    Non-Gui means its not windows environment can be DOS based, Linux Based or any others OS and can also be Java Based. So testing scope and planning depending upon the platform and the application you’re testing.

  289. Hi,
    We would like to know whether Rational Robo supports application developed in small Talk.
    Let us Know at the earliest , thanks in advance.

  290. Hi,
    Kindly send me comparision between QTP 8.2 & rational Robo (Latest Version).I would like to know whether QTP supports applications developed on small talk & VC++.

  291. Thanks for the information Bobby…
    Do u have any idea on Risk Analysis??? And do testers involve in that??? If so, in which phase we’ll involve???
    And can u b more specific that Java based applications comes under Non-GUI???

  292. Re:Suma,
    Risk Analysis by the meaing u can know that analyzing the risks involved with the for example before going to start the project we have to analyze the risks by categorizing them for example Technical and structural etc…
    In my next mail I will give u exmaples for this

  293. Hi All,
    How do we can calculate mathmatically the possible testcase of a simple functionality?

  294. Hi,
    Hope to catch u all in gud mood
    Suma – Risk Analysis – Now thats a good question. To be precise there are many things involved in Risk Analysis starting from the Initials of the Project till the Beta release and also final Instillation.
    So, can say every tester has to create a risk analysis document a rough/brief one which always plays as a future plan for good testing.
    moht – Listen writing a testcase is nothing but a scenario. So, it mostly depends upon the different scenarios you adopt. Again a scenario is created not only for testing but also keeping in mind user requirements, acceptance and other things like environment support etc.,

  295. Hi All,
    Can anybody explain me what is Baseline testing.
    thanks in advance.

  296. Hi All,
    I came to know about this site very recently,its a great effort by Rob,Bobby,Irana and all.I just wanna a share with you all that before you post any question just go through all the question answers listed here,b,coz most of you are asking repeated question .you are not taking the effort to go through this site before you post your questions.Lets all work towards building this site very informative to all who needs information about testing.

  297. Re: sridhar
    My question was how many testcases we can write to check a functionality? can we calculate the maximum testcases Mathmatically?

  298. Hi,
    So got here by chance
    Hey Welcome Ashwini and that was a very eligible suggestion you have given.
    Mohit – Listen as I already said you can never calculate the number of testcases its like asking how many stars are there in the sky because these test cases are interlinked corresponding to the links of the screen. and also you can say there are two types of Test Cases – Positive and Negitive, but you cannot know how many are there -because it depends on many factors as explained before.
    Baseline Testing – Please refer to my answers your questions is already answered.

  299. Is there any Certified Software Tester (CSTE). I have a urgent question for them. Does in CSTE exam, questions about Winrunner, loadrunner is asked? Does they ask about TSL programming?
    Thanks in advance.

  300. Hi Bobby,
    Thanks a lot for your answer.
    but i could not get what is baseline testing??

  301. Hi,
    So me back
    Hey Sarita – Thats a good question you have asked. And maybe your lucky. I am sending to you and all the CSTE aspirant a few links to go through. And also a few questions from june’ 2005 examination – just for your knowledge and understanding
    Part II
    1)Give 4 reasons why we do testing?
    2)List 4 factors that would indicate over testing of a system
    3)List 4 major errors testers make in test planning, execution and reporting
    4)What would you do if there is not enough time for testing and how will make sure that application is tested properly?
    5)State the difference between Dynamic and Static testing and give examples of each
    6)Draw the screen of an application that you would suggest as a defect tracking program including the data and fields that needs
    to be recorded
    7)What would you test in a system with multiple work stations that would NOT be tested in a system that has a single work station
    Part IV
    1)Management by fact is all about using quantitative measures to plan and manage software testing. List 5 measures or metrics that can be used in doing this, and explain
    2)List 4 points that should be included in a test plan on when testing should be stopped
    3)What would you consider a greater risk out of the following and explain why?
    1. Use of ineffective security practices
    2. Use of ineffective tools
    3. Incorrect Entry of data
    4. List 5 important parts of an Acceptance
    test plan and briefly explain the
    importance of it to your customer
    5. Give measurements to “Plan
    completeness” , ” Tester Performance” ”
    Tool Usage”
    Apart from this get registered in CTSE – Yahoo Groups – you will find many more questions just like above once.
    Hey feel free to mail me regarding any kind of help you need.

  302. Hi suma, u asked How many types of metric are there???
    In every process & deliverable follows the many types of matrices example see here .
    The Product Quality Measures:
    1. Customer satisfaction index
    (Quality ultimately is measured in terms of customer satisfaction.)
    Surveyed before product delivery and after product delivery
    (and on-going on a periodic basis, using standard questionnaires)
    2. Delivered defect quantities
    Normalized per function point (or per LOC)
    At product delivery (first 3 months or first year of operation)
    Ongoing (per year of operation)
    3. Responsiveness (turnaround time) to users
    Turnaround time for defect fixes, by level of severity
    Time for minor vs. major enhancements; actual vs. planned elapsed time
    4. Product volatility
    Ratio of maintenance fixes (to repair the system & bring it into
    compliance with specifications), vs. enhancement requests
    (requests by users to enhance or change functionality)
    5. Defect ratios
    Defects found after product delivery per function point
    Defects found after product delivery per LOC
    Pre-delivery defects: annual post-delivery defects
    Defects per function point of the system modifications
    6. Defect removal efficiency
    Number of post-release defects (found by clients in field operation),
    categorized by level of severity
    7. Complexity of delivered product
    McCabe’s cyclomatic complexity counts across the system
    Halstead’s measure
    Card’s design complexity measures
    Predicted defects and maintenance costs, based on complexity measures
    8. Test coverage
    Breadth of functional coverage
    Percentage of paths, branches or conditions that were actually tested
    Percentage by criticality level: perceived level of risk of paths
    The ratio of the number of detected faults to the number of predicted faults.
    9. Cost of defects
    Business losses per defect that occurs during operation
    Business interruption costs; costs of work-arounds
    10. Costs of quality activities
    Costs of reviews, inspections and preventive measures
    Costs of test planning and preparation

  303. hi isha,
    which came was for acceptance testing which data u use?
    Ans: In acceptance testing the end user work with the live data and main business
    Live data or Near live data is correct.

  304. Q:What are the methodologies used to develop Test Strategies ?
    A:In sw developments varies testing methodologies using.ex
    Intergration testing : In integration testing Incremental Testing and Non-Incremental Tetsing they follows.
    In Incremental Testing follows the testing methods like Top down Approach
    In NonIncremental Testing follows the Bottom up approach follows.
    System Testing : Methodologies
    White Box and Block box testing these are the testing methodologies

  305. Any body can explain what is the use of environment variable in qtp 6.5, and pl. suggest me some sites for learning qtp in detail.

  306. Hi All,
    We do testing to achieve quality. But how do we know we are doing qualitative testing, as we can’t do complete testing.
    There are no particular standards to do testing. Everybody follow their own standards. Why?

  307. Hi Munna,
    We do testing according to the setup document which describes the clients requirements.when the
    functionality meets the clients requirement and the bug rate falls below a certain level
    that means that we have done quality testing.And also in many companys there will be a seperate
    QA team which poses a procedure to ensure that the testers meet certain quality standards.
    There are actually lot of factors on which a company decides for the standards to do testing like, the size of the company,size and type of the project , time , type of clients , platforms they work on,budget and so on.
    Hope i have answered your questions if im wrong please do correct me
    Ashwini Reddy

  308. Hi…
    Can anybody tell me about ISO briefly???
    How many maximum no. of bugs should be there for a project that follows ISO standards… I heard that there should be some no.

  309. Hi,
    How to test web application manually and thu automation tool.
    Could pls suggest me.

  310. Can testers do Performance Testing for Client/Server applications also??? if so how can it be tested???

  311. HI suma,
    U was asked about ISO standards and processure.Iam giving the following point of ISO..go thorough it..
    Scope :
    1.Needs to demonstrate its ability to consistency provide product that meets customer and applicable requlatory requirements.
    2.Aims to enhance the customer satisfaction through the effective application of the system including process continual improvement of the system and assurance of conformity to customer and applicable regulatory requirements.
    2.General Requirements:
    The organization shall establish, document, implement and maintain a quality management system and continually improve its effectiveness in accordance with the requirements of this International Standard.The organisation shall
    a) Identify the processes needed for the quality management system and their application throughout the organisation
    3.Documentation requirements
    Documented statements of a quality policy and quality objectives.
    4.Quality manual
    A description of the interaction between the processes of the quality management system.
    5.Control of Documents
    Documents required by quality management system shall be controlled. Records are a special type of document and shall be controlled according to the requirements
    6.Control of records
    Records shall be established and maintained to provide evidence of conformity to requirements and of the effective operation of the quality management system. Records shall remain legible, readily identifiable and retrievable. A documented procedure shall be established to define the controls needed for the identification, storage, protection, retrieval, retention time and disposition of records.
    7.Management Responsibility
    Management Commitment
    Top management shall provide evidence of its commitment to the development and implementation of the quality management system and continually improve its effectiveness
    8.Customer focus
    9.Quality policy
    10.Quality Objectives
    11.Quality management system planning
    12.Responsibility, authority and communication
    13.Management representative
    14.Internal Communication
    15.Management review
    16.Review Input
    17.Review output
    18.Resource management
    19.Provision of resources
    20.Competence, awareness and training
    21.Identification and traceability
    22.Preventive action
    The organization shall determine action to eliminate the causes of potential nonconformities in order to prevent their occurrence. Preventive actions shall be appropriate to the effects of the potential problems.
    A documented procedure shall be established to define requirements for
    a) Determining potential nonconformities and their causes,
    b) Evaluating the need for action to prevent occurrence of nonconformities
    c) Determining and implementing action needed
    d) Records of results of action taken.
    e) Reviewing preventive action taken.
    – Chowdary

  312. Suma,
    how can it be performance tested of Client/Server applications.
    In Client/server applications of performance testing under the monitor of load criteria i.e using the tools to test the performance of client/server applications.
    Now vice versa using the Load Runner/Asta Quick Test/TestWeb MOnitor/Tonic/Net Load using these tools test the client server applicaitons for performance testing and focus on
    The time (in seconds) until a connection was achieved between the Client and the ABT (including the time it takes to establish the connection and receive the TCP/IP OK).
    The number of Virtual Clients (users).
    The time (in seconds) required for the client to process the data received from the ABT.
    The time (in seconds) required for the ABT to respond to a request sent by a client (starting from the end of the send including the time until the end of a blocked read of the incoming data).
    The time it takes to complete one round of execution of the script (in seconds).
    The time (in seconds) required to write the transaction buffer to the ABT.
    7.THROUGHPUT (bytes per second)
    The number of bytes transmitted from the ABT divided by the elapsed time (in seconds).
    The number of transactions (such as Get or Post) submitted to the ABT, divided by the elapsed time (in seconds).
    The time (in seconds) required to complete a transaction. This includes Connect Time, Send Time, Response Time and Process Time.
    – Chowdary

  313. Hi Choudary…
    Thanks for the information u have given…
    But still I didn’t get the answer for – Maximum no. of defects that should be in a project which follows ISO standards… This was asked by one of the interviewer earlier…

  314. Hi all,
    Its Samya new to this group
    I want to know about Apple script and how it can be effectively used in teting (Macinthosh platform)?Do anybody have idea o this?? i searched alot about apple script in google , I didnt get any much info..

  315. Hi Naresh,
    your question is very open ended. Do you want to know the entire procedure of how to do testing manually and through automation tools for web applications or………? please reprase your question and let us know what exactly you want.

  316. hi all,
    Can anyone explain about API testing, how it can be tested, is there specific tools to test.. any related documents to know further..

  317. Hi suma
    U has asked maximum defects found in projects as per ISO standards..
    See as per ISO standards what u have done, do the all documentation,in my experience i found the defectes as per ISO,
    -> Lack of Functional Specifiactions
    -> Business specifiactions
    -> System specifications
    -> if Customer requrements continuosly changes then updated information not provide to R&D & QA team and lack communication and adequate configuration management tools required.
    -> Clearly not prepare the modulewise and taskwise checklists and meeting reviews these are the defects we found as per ISO standards
    – chowdary

  318. Hi Choudary…
    U didn’t get my question properly… Every Organization which follows ISO, CMM like standards should not exceed the maximum no. of defects. They do follow some number… I’m asking about that particular no. for ISO standard organization… I think u understood now… Right!

  319. Suma,
    U asked like CMM standard to ISO..see here we should note the ISO based on processing oriented and documented oriented. we cant say particular number to ISO like CMM standards number
    – i think u caught my point..and see the briefly compare the all process between ISO & CMM
    – chowdary

  320. Hi,
    Iam Srinivas.
    I hav small doubt abt wat is the main difference between compile module and script

  321. can any one please tell me how to use variable with SQAConsolewrite in rational robot
    SQAConsolewrite “test total ” + testtot
    testtot is variable

  322. hi all,
    Can anyone explain about API testing, how it can be tested, is there specific tools to test.. any related documents to know further..

  323. Hi Srinivas…
    ‘Script’ is an executable file Whereas ‘Compiled Module’ is a non-executable file which is used to store reusable of functions…
    And coming to the types of bugs – as far as my knowledge there are:
    GUI related bugs,
    Run Time errors,
    Database Related Bugs
    If this is wrong plz correct me…

  324. hi iam raghavendra a.r. currently working as a embedded testing engineer.
    iam doing manual testing so anyone plz suggest me which automation tool i have to use for embedded application.
    and what is the differnce between test strategy and test plan, and wat is the traceability matrix.plz give me the answer.
    and also send the faq that u have on testing and winrunner

  325. Hi Raghavendra,
    the testing strategy should define the objectives of all test stages and the techniques that apply. The testing strategy also forms the basis for the creation of a standardised documentation set, and facilitates communication of the test process and its implications outside of the test discipline. Any test support tools introduced should be aligned with, and in support of, the test strategy.
    Test planning the requirements definition and design specifications facilitate in the identification of major test items and these may necessitate the test strategy to be updated. A detailed test plan and schedule is prepared with key test responsibilities being indicated
    Hope you got the difference. Your other question about Automation I dont have any Idea.

  326. Hi,
    now i am going to work in siebel performance testing using loadrunner, can anyone give me some basic idea about this?

  327. Hai Bobby,
    Thanks a lot for the help & of course, for the time also. I feel I got a great help.
    Well, one more question about this exam. As u know the fee for the exam is so high (in indian rupees, its Rs. 12000), when one should apply for the exam. After being a expert in testing or at the beginning of career i.e., with 2 yrs exp.
    Again Thanks a lot.

  328. I want prepare one ppt for my bos about how to write test cases from rquirement specification.

  329. Hai Bobby,
    After going through all sample questions u have posted, I feel part IV’s Q.3 intresting to answer. I think its answer is the 4th option
    i.e., List 5 important parts of an Acceptance test plan and briefly explain the importance of it to your customer. The reason: Not the
    Tester, but the Customer is supposed to carry out UAT (User Acceptance Test). If Tester will do the job, then the Customer will feel that we’r imposing our product forcefully upon them and trying to bully them. Is it?
    If I answered wrong, then u plz answer it.

  330. Hi sarita
    u r slightly correct..yes in UAT testing 99% of the product development was completed and it has testing under UAT (beta testing), before release the beta version tesert can do in end user point of real world scenario.
    Thanks sarita…
    – chowdary

  331. This portal is very useful for the Learners and as well as experienced guys.
    I need some information regarding the choosing of Rational suite over mercury’s QTP.

  332. I have a question please answer it :-
    1.what are the testcases we write to check for the logging screen whose requirements are below:-
    logind id (with min of 6 charc to 12 chars)
    password (min of 6 charc to 12 charc)
    character can be either numeric,alpha,alphanumeric.
    what is the procedure we follow to write the testcases.
    2.what is the testdata used in the above case? how many combinations of testdata we use ?does it test all the requirements?

  333. Hai Deepthi,
    The question u asked can’t be in a LOGGING screen. It should be a USER ID CREATION screen. Those conditions u mentioned should be checked in the USER ID CREATION screen itself. When Passwords/UserIds, other than those set and validated through USER ID CREATION screen, are entered in the LOGGING screen should give an error msg.

  334. Hi Deepti,
    The question u was asked about the creation of maximum Test Cases.Here u could prepare the test data with valid scenario and invalid scenario.
    Valid Scenario : Case 1:Give with Boundary
    – 6 to 12 and Text or Numeric for login
    – password also give the 6 to 12 characters
    Case 2: Give the combination of login ID Alphanumeric.
    Invalid Scenario : Case 1 : Give the out of boundary
    – Give the special characters for login ID & Password field.
    Case 2 : – Give the below 6 characters and more than 12 characters.
    – These are the minimum combinations for this test case..
    – Chowdary

  335. Hi all,
    In order to write the testcase we can go for valid and invalid scenario testing.but it is a endless process.
    can any one please be specific about the number of testcases we can arrive in this case and the different combinations of test data we have to use for testing.
    it would be helpful if u can provide me with sample testcase document for testing login screen

  336. Hi Friends,
    if there is any openings on testing pls inform me
    Thanks & Regards

  337. hi,
    who will set the priority and severity?after bug found?
    plz answer the question.

  338. Hai Deepthi,
    If those things have to be checked in a USER ID screen then the following test cases have to be executed:
    1) When login ID has less than 6 chars, system should give error msg. (Login ID can not have less than 6 chars)
    2) When login ID has greater than 12 chars, system should give error msg. (Login ID can not have greater than 12 chars)
    3) Alphanumeric chars include both alpha (A to Z, a to z, _) & numeric chars (0 to 9). When chars other than these chars when entered for login ID, it should show error msg. (Chars A to Z, a to z, 0 to 9 and _ are only allowed in Login ID)
    4) When password has less than 6 chars, system should give error msg. (Password can not have less than 6 chars)
    5) When password has greater than 12 chars, system should give error msg. (Password can not have greater than 12 chars)
    6) Alphanumeric chars include both alpha (A to Z, a to z, _) & numeric chars (0 to 9). When chars other than these chars when entered for Password, it should show error msg. (Chars A to Z, a to z, 0 to 9 and _ are only allowed in Password)

  339. Hi Sai Krishna,
    Commonly bug will repored by tester in bug life cycle. then the teamlead will set the priority and severity, bcoz he knows the functionality of that function or application. i think u know the severity types critical major medium and minor
    depending upon these severity priority will set.
    as p1(immediate),p2(24 hours),p3(48 hours).
    if it is not the correct answer pls reply me

  340. Hi Priya,
    U was asked what they r ask in Interview.The following questions i have asked in the earlier interviews.
    1.Write a sample Test Policy?
    2.Explain what test tools you will need for client-server testing and why?
    3.Explain what test tools you will need for Web app testing and why?
    4.Explain pros and cons of testing done development team and testing by an independent team?
    5.Write a test transaction for a scenario where 6.2% of tax deduction for the first $62,000 of income has to be done?
    7.What issues come up in test automation, and how do you manage them?
    8.37. Have you done exploratory or specification-driven testing?
    9.How do you know when the product is tested well enough?
    10.When should you begin test planning?
    I focused on more in Automatin testing.
    – chowdary

  341. hi,
    I am,only i am seeing this site.this is very good and very useful 4 the learners.plz, send me the faq’s 4 Test Director in interview point of view as earlier.
    tk cr,

  342. Hi everbody,
    I am using JProfiler ( the Java Profiling Tool)to check the Memeory leakage problem in my application. Can anyone please help me by telling “how to detect whether there is memory leakage in the application or not by studying the JProfiler Graphs or the sessions reports.”
    Please help me out if anyone has the solution to the above given Problem.

  343. I have made a new forum available that will take the place of this posting. I hope that everyone will find the interface much easier to use for asking and answering questions.
    You will need to register with the forum to use it. I was not able to automatically transfer over the users from this site.
    There is no easy way to integrate the questions asked and answered here into the forum. For that I apologize.
    I have locked out this message to prevent further postings.

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